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Dual sequential external defibrillation (DSED) is the process of near simultaneous discharge of two defibrillators with differing pad placement to terminate refractory arrhythmias. Previously used in the electrophysiology suite, this technique has recently been used in the emergency department and prehospital setting for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We present a case of successful DSED in the emergency department with neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge after refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) and review the putative mechanisms of action of this technique.
Transverse microradiography (TMR) and electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) are commonly used for characterizing dental tissues. TMR utilizes an approximately monochromatic X-ray beam to determine the mass attenuation of the sample, which is converted to volume percent mineral (vol%min). An EPMA stimulates the emission of characteristic X-rays from a variable volume of sample (dependent on density) to provide compositional information. The aim of this study was to compare the assessment of sound, demineralized, and remineralized enamel using both techniques. Human enamel samples were demineralized and a part of each was subsequently remineralized. The same line profile through each demineralized lesion was analyzed using TMR and EPMA to determine vol%min and wt% elemental composition and atomic concentration ratio information, respectively. The vol%min and wt% values determined by each technique were significantly correlated but the absolute values were not similar. This was attributable to the complex ultrastructural composition, the variable density of the samples analyzed, and the nonlinear interaction of the EPMA-generated X-rays. EPMA remains an important technique for obtaining atomic ratio information, but its limitations in determining absolute mineral content indicate that it should not be used in place of TMR for determining the mineral density of dental hard tissues.
Significant new opportunities for astrophysics and cosmology have been identified at low radio frequencies. The Murchison Widefield Array is the first telescope in the southern hemisphere designed specifically to explore the low-frequency astronomical sky between 80 and 300 MHz with arcminute angular resolution and high survey efficiency. The telescope will enable new advances along four key science themes, including searching for redshifted 21-cm emission from the EoR in the early Universe; Galactic and extragalactic all-sky southern hemisphere surveys; time-domain astrophysics; and solar, heliospheric, and ionospheric science and space weather. The Murchison Widefield Array is located in Western Australia at the site of the planned Square Kilometre Array (SKA) low-band telescope and is the only low-frequency SKA precursor facility. In this paper, we review the performance properties of the Murchison Widefield Array and describe its primary scientific objectives.
Let M be a complete hyperbolic n-manifold of finite
volume. By a systole of M we
mean a shortest closed geodesic in M. By the systole length of M we mean the length
of a systole. We denote this by sl (M). In the case when M is closed, the systole length
is simply twice the injectivity radius of M. In the presence of cusps, injectivity radius
becomes arbitrarily small and it is for this reason we use the language of ‘systole
In the context of hyperbolic surfaces of finite volume, much work has been done
on systoles; we refer the reader to [2, 10–12]
for some results. In dimension 3, little seems known about systoles. The main result in
this paper is the following (see below for definitions):
Nest temperatures for green turtles (Chelonia mydas) nesting on Ascension Island, South Atlantic (7°57'S 14°22'W), were examined. Temperature probes were placed into nests on two beaches, Long Beach (26 nests) and North East Bay (8 nests). Within these beaches there was relatively little thermal variation (SD of nest temperature was 0.32°C for Long Beach and 0.30°C for North East Bay). To examine inter-beach thermal variation temperature probes were buried at 55 cm on 12 beaches. Inter-beach thermal variation was large and was related to the beach albedo with the darkest beach (albedo, 016) being 4.2°C warmer than the lightest coloured beach (albedo, 0.73).
Examples of hyperbolic knots in S3 are given such that their complements contain quasi-Fuchsian non-Fuchsian surfaces. In particular, this proves that there are hyperbolic knots that are not toroidally alternating.
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