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Government policy guidance in Victoria, Australia, encourages schools to provide affordable, healthy foods in canteens. This study analysed the healthiness and price of items available in canteens in Victorian primary schools and associations with school characteristics.
Dietitians classified menu items (main, snack and beverage) using the red, amber and green traffic light system defined in the Victorian government’s School Canteens and Other School Food Services Policy. This system also included a black category for confectionary and high sugar content soft drinks which should not be supplied. Descriptive statistics and regressions were used to analyse differences in the healthiness and price of main meals, snacks and beverages offered, according to school remoteness, sector (government and Catholic/independent) size, and socio-economic position.
State of Victoria, Australia
A convenience sample of canteen menus drawn from three previous obesity prevention studies in forty-eight primary schools between 2016 and 2019.
On average, school canteen menus were 21 % ‘green’ (most healthy – everyday), 53 % ‘amber’ (select carefully), 25 % ‘red’ (occasional) and 2 % ‘black’ (banned) items, demonstrating low adherence with government guidelines. ‘Black’ items were more common in schools in regional population centres. ‘Red’ main meal items were cheaper than ‘green’% (mean difference –$0·48 (95 % CI –0·85, –0·10)) and ‘amber’ –$0·91 (–1·27, –0·57)) main meal items. In about 50 % of schools, the mean price of ‘red’ main meal, beverages and snack items were cheaper than ‘green’ items, or no ‘green’ alternative items were offered.
In this sample of Victorian canteen menus, there was no evidence of associations of healthiness and pricing by school characteristics except for regional centres having the highest proportion of ‘black’ (banned) items compared with all other remoteness categories examined. There was low adherence with state canteen menu guidelines. Many schools offered a high proportion of ‘red’ food options and ‘black’ (banned) options, particularly in regional centres. Unhealthier options were cheaper than healthy options. More needs to be done to bring Victorian primary school canteen menus in line with guidelines.
To determine whether primary school children’s weight status and dietary behaviours vary by remoteness as defined by the Australian Modified Monash Model (MMM).
A cross-sectional study design was used to conduct secondary analysis of baseline data from primary school students participating in a community-based childhood obesity trial. Logistic mixed models estimated associations between remoteness, measured weight status and self-reported dietary intake.
Twelve regional and rural Local Government Areas in North-East Victoria, Australia.
Data were collected from 2456 grade 4 (approximately 9–10 years) and grade 6 (approximately 11–12 years) students.
The final sample included students living in regional centres (17·4 %), large rural towns (25·6 %), medium rural towns (15·1 %) and small rural towns (41·9 %). Weight status did not vary by remoteness. Compared to children in regional centres, those in small rural towns were more likely to meet fruit consumption guidelines (OR: 1·75, 95 % CI (1·24, 2·47)) and had higher odds of consuming fewer takeaway meals (OR: 1·37, 95 % CI (1·08, 1·74)) and unhealthy snacks (OR = 1·58, 95 % CI (1·15, 2·16)).
Living further from regional centres was associated with some healthier self-reported dietary behaviours. This study improves understanding of how dietary behaviours may differ across remoteness levels and highlights that public health initiatives may need to take into account heterogeneity across communities.
Childhood obesity prevention is critical to reducing the health and economic burden currently experienced by the Australian economy. System science has emerged as an approach to manage the complexity of childhood obesity and the ever-changing risk factors, resources and priorities of government and funders. Anecdotally, our experience suggests that inflexibility of traditional research methods and dense academic terminology created issues with those working in prevention practice. Therefore, this paper provides a refined description of research-specific terminology of scale-up, fidelity, adaptation and context, drawing from community-based system dynamics and our experience in designing, implementing and evaluating non-linear, community-led system approaches to childhood obesity prevention.
We acknowledge the importance of using a practice lens, rather than purely a research design lens, and provide a narrative on our experience and perspectives on scale-up, fidelity, context and adaptation through a practice lens.
Practice-based researcher experience and perspectives.
Practice-based researchers highlighted the key finding that community should be placed at the centre of the intervention logic. This allowed communities to self-organise with regard to stakeholder involvement, capacity, boundary identification, and co-creation of actions implemented to address childhood obesity will ensure scale-up, fidelity, context and adaptation are embedded.
We need to measure beyond primary anthropometric outcomes and focus on evaluating more about implementation, process and sustainability. We need to learn more from practitioners on the ground and use an implementation science lens to further understand how actions work. This is where solutions to sustained childhood obesity prevention will be found.
We present the data and initial results from the first pilot survey of the Evolutionary Map of the Universe (EMU), observed at 944 MHz with the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) telescope. The survey covers
of an area covered by the Dark Energy Survey, reaching a depth of 25–30
rms at a spatial resolution of
11–18 arcsec, resulting in a catalogue of
220 000 sources, of which
180 000 are single-component sources. Here we present the catalogue of single-component sources, together with (where available) optical and infrared cross-identifications, classifications, and redshifts. This survey explores a new region of parameter space compared to previous surveys. Specifically, the EMU Pilot Survey has a high density of sources, and also a high sensitivity to low surface brightness emission. These properties result in the detection of types of sources that were rarely seen in or absent from previous surveys. We present some of these new results here.
To describe the development of Fiji’s fruit and vegetable fiscal policies between 2010 and 2014 and explore the impact they have had on import volumes.
Qualitative case study and in-depth analysis of policy process. Policy impact was assessed using publicly available import volume data and prices of food products.
Senior government policy makers, non-communicable disease officers from the Ministry of Health and Medical Services (MoHMS) and supermarket managers.
In 2011, the Fijian Government introduced an import excise of 10 % on vegetables and reduced the import fiscal duty on fruit that was also grown in Fiji by 10 %. The import tax on vegetables was removed in 2012 in response to a MoHMS request. Policy makers from several sectors supported the MoHMS request, recognized their leadership and acknowledged the importance of collaboration in achieving the removal of the excise. Tariff reductions appear to have contributed to increases in the volume of vegetables (varieties not grown in Fiji) and fruit (varieties grown in Fiji) imported, but it is not clear if this increased population consumption.
Reductions in import duties appear to have contributed to increases in volumes of vegetables and fruit imported into Fiji. This case study has demonstrated that governments can use fiscal policy to meet the needs of a range of sectors including health, agriculture and tourism.
Pacific Island countries are experiencing a high burden of diet-related non-communicable diseases; and consumption of fat, sugar and salt are important modifiable risk factors contributing to this. The present study systematically reviewed and summarized available literature on dietary intakes of fat, sugar and salt in the Pacific Islands.
Electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect and GlobalHealth) were searched from 2005 to January 2018. Grey literature was also searched and key stakeholders were consulted for additional information. Study eligibility was assessed by two authors and quality was evaluated using a modified tool for assessing dietary intake studies.
Thirty-one studies were included, twenty-two contained information on fat, seventeen on sugar and fourteen on salt. Dietary assessment methods varied widely and six different outcome measures for fat, sugar and salt intake – absolute intake, household expenditure, percentage contribution to energy intake, sources, availability and dietary behaviours – were used. Absolute intake of fat ranged from 25·4 g/d in Solomon Islands to 98·9 g/d in Guam, while salt intake ranged from 5·6 g/d in Kiribati to 10·3 g/d in Fiji. Only Guam reported on absolute sugar intake (47·3 g/d). Peer-reviewed research studies used higher-quality dietary assessment methods, while reports from national surveys had better participation rates but mostly utilized indirect methods to quantify intake.
Despite the established and growing crisis of diet-related diseases in the Pacific, there is inadequate evidence about what Pacific Islanders are eating. Pacific Island countries need nutrition monitoring systems to fully understand the changing diets of Pacific Islanders and inform effective policy interventions.
Dual sequential external defibrillation (DSED) is the process of near simultaneous discharge of two defibrillators with differing pad placement to terminate refractory arrhythmias. Previously used in the electrophysiology suite, this technique has recently been used in the emergency department and prehospital setting for out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA). We present a case of successful DSED in the emergency department with neurologically intact survival to hospital discharge after refractory ventricular fibrillation (RVF) and review the putative mechanisms of action of this technique.
The United Kingdom is a leader in genomics research, and the presence of numerous types of biobanks and the linking of health data and research within the UK evidences the importance of biobank-based research in the UK. There is no biobank-specific law in the UK and research on biobank materials is governed by a confusing set of statutory law, common law, regulations, and guidance documents. Several layers of applicable law, from European to local, further complicate an understanding of privacy protections. Finally, biobanks frequently contain data in addition to the samples; the legal framework in the UK generally differentiates between data and samples and the form of the data affects the applicability of legal provisions. Biobanks must be licensed by the Human Tissue Authority; certain projects must be reviewed by Research Ethics Committees, and all projects are encouraged to be reviewed by them. Data Access Committees in biobanks are also common in the UK. While this confusing array of legal provisions leaves privacy protections in biobanking somewhat unclear, changes at the EU level may contribute to harmonization of approaches to privacy.
We present the results of an approximately 6 100 deg2 104–196 MHz radio sky survey performed with the Murchison Widefield Array during instrument commissioning between 2012 September and 2012 December: the MWACS. The data were taken as meridian drift scans with two different 32-antenna sub-arrays that were available during the commissioning period. The survey covers approximately 20.5 h < RA < 8.5 h, − 58° < Dec < −14°over three frequency bands centred on 119, 150 and 180 MHz, with image resolutions of 6–3 arcmin. The catalogue has 3 arcmin angular resolution and a typical noise level of 40 mJy beam− 1, with reduced sensitivity near the field boundaries and bright sources. We describe the data reduction strategy, based upon mosaicked snapshots, flux density calibration, and source-finding method. We present a catalogue of flux density and spectral index measurements for 14 110 sources, extracted from the mosaic, 1 247 of which are sub-components of complexes of sources.
To determine the impact of an implementation intervention designed to introduce policies and practices supportive of healthy eating in centre-based child-care services. Intervention strategies included staff training, resources, incentives, follow-up support, and performance monitoring and feedback.
A quasi-experimental design was used to assess change over 20 months in healthy eating policy and practice in intervention and comparison child-care services.
The Hunter New England (HNE) region of New South Wales (NSW), Australia.
All centre-based child-care services (n 287) in the intervention region (HNE) were invited and 240 (91 % response rate) participated. Two hundred and ninety-six services in the rest of NSW were randomly selected as a comparison region and 191 participated (76 % response rate). A sub-analysis was conducted on those services that provided children food (n 196 at baseline and n 190 at follow-up). Ninety-six provided menus for analysis at baseline (HNE, n 36; NSW, n 50) and 102 provided menus at follow-up (HNE, n 50; NSW, n 52).
Services in the intervention region were significantly more likely to provide only plain milk and water for children (P = 0·018) and to engage parents in nutrition policy or programmes (P = 0·002). They were also more likely (P = 0·056) to have nutrition policy on home packed food. In addition, menus of services that provided lunch were significantly more likely to comply with healthy eating guidelines for sweetened drinks (P < 0·001), fruit (P < 0·001) and vegetables (P = 0·01).
An implementation intervention was able to modify policy and practice in a large number of child-care services so that they were more supportive of healthy eating.
To examine the pattern of intake of key foods and beverages of children aged 4–12 years and the association with weight status.
Design and setting
A computer-assisted telephone interview was used to determine the intake of fruit, vegetables, packaged snacks, fast foods and sweetened drinks ‘yesterday’ and ‘usually’ as reported by parents/guardians of a representative sample of 2184 children from the Barwon South-Western region of Victoria, Australia.
Children who consumed >2–3, >3–4 and >4 servings of fruit juice/drinks ‘yesterday’ were, respectively, 1.7 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2–2.2), 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.5) and 2.1 (95% CI 1.5–2.9) times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with those who had no servings of fruit juice/drink ‘yesterday’, adjusted for age, gender and socio-economic status (SES). Further, children who had ≥ 3 servings of soft drink ‘yesterday’ were 2.2 (95% CI 1.3–3.9) times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with those who had no servings of soft drink ‘yesterday’, adjusted for age, gender and SES. In addition, children who ‘usually’ drank fruit juice/drinks twice or more per day were 1.7 (95% CI 1.2–2.4) times more likely to be overweight/obese compared with those who drank these beverages once or less per week, adjusted for age, gender and SES. Although fast foods and packaged snacks were regularly eaten, there were no associations between weight status and consumption of these foods.
Intake of sweetened beverages was associated with overweight and obesity in this population of Australian schoolchildren and should be a target for intervention programmes aimed at preventing unhealthy weight gain in children.
Let G be an arbitrary finite group, R be a finite associative ring with identity and RG be the group ring. We show that ℤ2Q8 is the minimal reversible group ring which is not symmetric, and we also characterise the finite rings R for which RQ8 is reversible. The first result extends a result of Gutan and Kisielewicz which shows that ℤ2Q8 is the minimal reversible group algebra over a field which is not symmetric, and it answers a question raised by Marks for the group ring case.
European rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus abundance was evaluated relative to habitat variables within two zones in Cadiz Province (south-east Spain), 2 years after the spread of rabbit viral haemorrhagic disease (RVHD). The study areas were low-lying regions of mixed pasture/agriculture, Mediterranean forest and matorral, west (Zone A) and east (Zone B) of the Sierra de Cadiz mountain chain. A total of 111 sites was selected to sample all existing habitat types. Relative rabbit density in each site was estimated using a pellet count method in one 50×2 m transect. Mean pellet densities were 21.05 pellet m-2 in Zone B and significantly lower, 5.85 pellets m-2 in Zone A. Physical variables, such as vegetation characteristics (density, height and patchiness of cover-layer vegetation, etc.), topographical characteristics and human influences, cover-layer vegetation species (woody stemmed shrub species or trees forming dense stands), and ground-layer vegetation species (herbaceous species forming a low-lying layer) were determined within transects. In addition to these variables, soil types, rock type and land form, as well as the presence of aquifers, irrigation, and the proximity of rivers, were determined for each site. Significantly higher pellet densities were found in mixed grassland/matorral and cork oak/matorral than in all other habitats. Pellet density was negatively correlated with density of ground-layer vegetation, while high pellet densities were associated with medium-height ground-layer vegetation (50–100 cm). The presence of Entisols was negatively associated with pellet density. The cover-layer species Pistacia lentiscus, Quercus coccifera, Quercus suber, Opuntia ficus-indica and the ground-layer grasses all showed positive associations with pellet density, while the ground-layer species Echium gaditana and Scorpiurus vermiculatus were negatively associated with pellet density. Multivariate analyses identified the mixed grassland/matorral and cork oak forest/matorral habitats as explaining most of the variation in pellet density. The height of cover-layer vegetation was negatively associated, while Opuntia and table-and/calcareous sandstone were positively associated, with mixed grassland/matorral. Distance from habitation and human impact were negatively associated and Quercus suber was positively associated with cork oak forest/matorral. Comparison with previous studies suggest that the low pellet counts in this study represent very low rabbit densities and the population as a whole appears depleted and fragmented.
Accurate charts of tidal streams are needed in many fields of science
and industry. The
Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory's numerically modelled hydrodynamic
data sets provide
a suitable source for the production of such charts. Different methods
of producing data in
‘tidal diamond’ format were investigated and the most suitable
was selected for
implementation over the UK continental shelf.