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After Charlemagne's death in 814, Italy was ruled by a succession of kings and emperors, all of whom could claim some relation to the Carolingians, some via the female line of succession. This study offers new perspectives on the fascinating but neglected period of Italy in the ninth century and the impact of Carolingian culture. Bringing together some of the foremost scholars on early medieval Italy, After Charlemagne offers the first comprehensive overview of the period, and also presents new research on Italian politics, culture, society and economy, from the death of Charlemagne to the assassination of Berengar I in 924. Revealing Italy as a multifaceted peninsula, the authors address the governance and expansion of Carolingian Italy, examining relations with the other Carolingian kingdoms, as well as those with the Italian South, the Papacy and the Byzantine Empire. Exploring topics on a regional and local level as well as presenting a 'big picture' of the Italian or Lombard kingdom, this volume provides new and exciting answers to the central question: How Carolingian was 'Carolingian Italy'?
This chapter describes the institutional, political, and legal changes that the Roman episcopacy underwent during the first millennium. It sketches the historical developments that led to the emergence of the papacy as an institution, and it describes the first official papal decretals and the early collections of papal decisions. The chapter also examines the evolving ideas of Petrine and Pauline succession and of papal supremacy. Inseparably linked to those ideas was the relationship between the bishops of Rome and the ever-changing but enduring Byzantine Roman Empire. In the period under study, the papacy had to deal with many external and internal challenges, which shaped the Roman episcopacy during the first millennium and thereafter. The chapter should be read in connection with the chapters on two popes: Leo the Great (440–461) and Gregory the Great (590–604).
This volume analyses the importance of history, the textual resources of the past and the integration of Christian and imperial Rome into the cultural memory of early medieval Europe within the wider question of identity formation. The case studies in this book shed new light on the process of codification and modification of cultural heritage in the light of the transmission of texts and the extant manuscript evidence from the early Middle Ages. The authors demonstrate how particular texts and their early medieval manuscript representatives in Italy, Francia, Saxony and Bavaria not only reflect ethnic, social and cultural identities but themselves contributed to the creation of identities, gave meaning to social practice, and were often intended to inspire, guide, change, or prevent action, directly or indirectly. These texts are shown to be part of a cultural effort to shape the present by restructuring the past.