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Vitamin D has been reported to activate macrophage microbicidal mechanisms by inducing the production of antimicrobial peptides and nitric oxide (NO), but conversely has been shown to contribute to a greater susceptibility to Leishmania amazonensis infection in mice. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the role of vitamin D during intracellular infection with L. amazonensis by examining its effect on macrophage oxidative mechanisms and parasite survival in vitro. Vitamins D2 and D3 significantly inhibited promastigote and amastigote growth in vitro. Vitamin D3 was not able to induce NO and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in uninfected macrophages or macrophages infected with L. amazonensis. In addition, vitamin D3 in combination with interferon (IFN)-γ did not enhance amastigote killing and in fact, significantly reduced NO and ROS production when compared with the effect of IFN-γ alone. In this study, we demonstrated that vitamin D directly reduces parasite growth in infected macrophages (approximately 50–60% at 50 μm) but this effect is independent of the activation of macrophage oxidative mechanisms. These findings will contribute to a better understanding of the role of vitamin D in cutaneous leishmaniasis.
To compare the effectiveness of manual and automated methods for cleaning laparoscopic instruments.
Experimental laboratory study.
We evaluated 4 methods of cleaning laparoscopic instruments: (1) manual-only cleaning and rinsing with potable tap water; (2) manual cleaning and rinsing with potable tap water, followed by ultrasonic cleaning without rinsing; (3) manual cleaning and rinsing with potable tap water followed by ultrasonic cleaning and rinsing with potable tap water; and (4) manual cleaning and rinsing with potable tap water, followed by ultrasonic cleaning and rinsing: first with potable tap water and then with sterile distilled water. Organic residues of protein, hemoglobin, and carbohydrates were evaluated using spectrophotometry.
The various cleaning methods tested did not result in statistically significant differences (P>.05) in the levels of investigated organic residues.
All cleaning and rinsing methods tested were found to be effective in reducing the levels of organic residues on laparoscopic instruments. Thus, there is no advantage gained by supplementing manual-only cleaning with automated ultrasonic cleaning, nor was there a difference between rinsing with potable tap versus sterile distilled water.
Hyperammonaemia is related to both central and peripheral fatigue during exercise. Hyperammonaemia in response to exercise can be reduced through supplementation with either amino acids or combined keto analogues and amino acids (KAAA). In the present study, we determined the effect of short-term KAAA supplementation on ammonia production in subjects eating a low-carbohydrate diet who exercise. A total of thirteen male cyclists eating a ketogenic diet for 3 d were divided into two groups receiving either KAAA (KEx) or lactose (control group; LEx) supplements. Athletes cycled indoors for 2 h, and blood samples were obtained at rest, during exercise and over the course of 1 h during the recovery period. Exercise-induced ammonaemia increased to a maximum of 35 % in the control group, but no significant increase was observed in the supplemented group. Both groups had a significant increase (approximately 35 %) in uraemia in response to exercise. The resting urate levels of the two groups were equivalent and remained statistically unchanged in the KEx group after 90 min of exercise; an earlier increase was observed in the LEx group. Glucose levels did not change, either during the trial time or between the groups. An increase in lactate levels was observed during the first 30 min of exercise in both groups, but there was no difference between the groups. The present results suggest that the acute use of KAAA diminishes exercise-induced hyperammonaemia.
During exercise, ammonia levels are related to the appearance of both central and peripheral fatigue. Therefore, controlling the increase in ammonia levels is an important strategy in ameliorating the metabolic response to exercise and in improving athletic performance. Free amino acids can be used as substrates for ATP synthesis that produces ammonia as a side product. Keto analogues act in an opposite way, being used to synthesise amino acids whilst decreasing free ammonia in the blood. Adult male rats were divided into four groups based on receiving either keto analogues associated with amino acids (KAAA) or a placebo and resistance exercise or no exercise. There was an approximately 40 % increase in ammonaemia due to KAAA supplementation in resting animals. Exercise increased ammonia levels twofold with respect to the control, with a smaller increase (about 20 %) in ammonia levels due to exercise. Exercise itself causes a significant increase in blood urea levels (17 %). However, KAAA reduced blood urea levels to 75 % of the pre-exercise values. Blood urate levels increased 28 % in the KAAA group, independent of exercise. Supplementation increased glucose levels by 10 % compared with control animals. Exercise did not change glucose levels in either the control or supplemented groups. Exercise promoted a 57 % increase in lactate levels in the control group. Supplementation promoted a twofold exercise-induced increase in blood lactate levels. The present results suggest that an acute supplementation of KAAA can decrease hyperammonaemia induced by exercise.
This is a cross-sectional community study conducted to assess the one-year prevalence of psychotropic use in the city of São Paulo. A representative stratified sample of the city was drawn from three sub-districts selected on the basis of their health indicators (Ramos & Goihman, 1989). The probability of a psychiatric disorder was estimated by means of the Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Questionnaire (QMPA) developed by Santana (1982). The total sample comprised 1742 subjects: 11·7% of males and 24·6% of females were probable cases in the QMPA, at the cut-off point 7/8. The overall psychotropic consumption was 101·6 persons/1000 inhabitants. The rate of psychotropic use was higher for females (142·3 persons/1000 inhabitants) than males (50·0 persons/1000), a difference statistically significant (χ2 = 18·0, 1 df, P < 0·001). The highest rate of consumption was for tranquillizers (80·4/1000 inhabitants) and the general physician was found to be the leading prescriber (46·9%), being followed by cardiologists (15·3%). A log-linear model was constructed to study the combined effect of sociodemographic factors on the probability of being a tranquillizer user. Women were found to take more tranquillizers than men, consumption increased with age, and the positives in the QMPA were more likely to be users than were the negatives. The higher the family income per capita the higher the risk of being a tranquillizer user. These findings applied regardless of the sub-district, marital status, and migration status of the subjects. These results are discussed in the light of the alternative possible interventions by general practitioners.
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