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40% of people with dementia have disturbed sleep but there are currently no known effective treatments. Studies of sleep hygiene and light therapy have not been powered to indicate feasibility and acceptability and have shown 40–50% retention. We tested the feasibility and acceptability of a six-session manualized evidence-based non-pharmacological therapy; Dementia RElAted Manual for Sleep; STrAtegies for RelaTives (DREAMS-START) for sleep disturbance in people with dementia.
We conducted a parallel, two-armed, single-blind randomized trial and randomized 2:1 to intervention: Treatment as Usual. Eligible participants had dementia and sleep disturbances (scoring ≥4 on one Sleep Disorders Inventory item) and a family carer and were recruited from two London memory services and Join Dementia Research. Participants wore an actiwatch for two weeks pre-randomization. Trained, clinically supervised psychology graduates delivered DREAMS-START to carers randomized to intervention; covering Understanding sleep and dementia; Making a plan (incorporating actiwatch information, light exposure using a light box); Daytime activity and routine; Difficult night-time behaviors; Taking care of your own (carer's) sleep; and What works? Strategies for the future. Carers kept their manual, light box, and relaxation recordings post-intervention. Outcome assessment was masked to allocation. The co-primary outcomes were feasibility (≥50% eligible people consenting to the study) and acceptability (≥75% of intervention group attending ≥4 intervention sessions).
In total, 63out of 95 (66%; 95% CI: 56–76%) eligible referrals consented between 04/08/2016 and 24/03/2017; 62 (65%; 95% CI: 55–75%) were randomized, and 37 out of 42 (88%; 95% CI: 75–96%) adhered to the intervention.
DREAM-START for sleep disorders in dementia is feasible and acceptable.
The jumping to conclusions (JTC) reasoning bias and decreased working memory performance (WMP) are associated with psychosis, but associations with affective disturbances (i.e. depression, anxiety, mania) remain inconclusive. Recent findings also suggest a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and psychotic experiences (PEs). This study investigated whether JTC bias and decreased WMP are associated with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.
Data were derived from the second Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study (NEMESIS-2). Trained interviewers administered the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI) at three time points in a general population sample (N = 4618). The beads and digit-span task were completed to assess JTC bias and WMP, respectively. CIDI was used to measure affective disturbances and an add-on instrument to measure PEs.
Compared to individuals with neither affective disturbances nor PEs, the JTC bias was more likely to occur in individuals with co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs [moderate psychosis (1–2 PEs): adjusted relative risk ratio (RRR) 1.17, 95% CI 0.98–1.41; and high psychosis (3 or more PEs or psychosis-related help-seeking behaviour): adjusted RRR 1.57, 95% CI 1.19–2.08], but not with affective disturbances and PEs alone, whereas decreased WMP was more likely in all groups. There was some evidence of a dose–response relationship, as JTC bias and decreased WMP were more likely in individuals with affective disturbances as the level of PEs increased or help-seeking behaviour was reported.
The findings suggest that JTC bias and decreased WMP may contribute to a transdiagnostic phenotype of co-occurring affective disturbances and PEs.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
The species Phytomonas serpens is known to express some molecules displaying similarity to those described in trypanosomatids pathogenic to humans, such as peptidases from Trypanosoma cruzi (cruzipain) and Leishmania spp. (gp63). In this work, a population of P. serpens resistant to the calpain inhibitor MDL28170 at 70 µm (MDLR population) was selected by culturing promastigotes in increasing concentrations of the drug. The only relevant ultrastructural difference between wild-type (WT) and MDLR promastigotes was the presence of microvesicles within the flagellar pocket of the latter. MDLR population also showed an increased reactivity to anti-cruzipain antibody as well as a higher papain-like proteolytic activity, while the expression of calpain-like molecules cross-reactive to anti-Dm-calpain (from Drosophila melanogaster) antibody and calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase activity were decreased. Gp63-like molecules also presented a diminished expression in MDLR population, which is probably correlated to the reduction in the parasite adhesion to the salivary glands of the insect vector Oncopeltus fasciatus. A lower accumulation of Rhodamine 123 was detected in MDLR cells when compared with the WT population, a phenotype that was reversed when MDLR cells were treated with cyclosporin A and verapamil. Collectively, our results may help in the understanding of the roles of calpain inhibitors in trypanosomatids.
Objectives: Pedophilia (P) is a psychiatric disease associated with sexual attraction toward children and often accompanied by child sexual offending (CSO). Consequently, it is important to address the understanding of executive dysfunctions that may increase the probability of CSO. Moreover, this research field has been lacking to disentangle executive deficits associated with pedophilia (as a deviant sexual preference) from those associated with CSO (as a deviant sexual behavior). Methods: The German multi-sided research network NeMUP offers the opportunity to overcome these limitations. By applying the Cambridge Automated Neuropsychological Test Battery in four carefully matched groups of men: (1) pedophiles with (N=45) and (2) without (N=45) a history of sexual offending against children; (3) child molesters without pedophilia (N=19), and (4) non-offending controls (N=49), we were able to analyze executive functioning in pedophilia and CSO independently. Results: Both CSO groups as compared to both non-CSO groups exhibited worsened response inhibition ability. However, only non-pedophilic offenders showed additionally disabled strategy use ability. Regarding set-shifting abilities, the P+CSO group showed the best performance. We also found that performances were affected by age: only in pedophiles, response inhibition worsened with age, while age-related deficits in set-shifting abilities were restricted to non-pedophilic participants. The latter also differentiated between both sexual preference groups. Conclusions: Our results are the first to demonstrate that executive dysfunctions are related to offense status rather than pedophilic preference. Furthermore, there was evidence for differentiating age and performance correlations between pedophiles and non-pedophiles, which warrants further investigation. (JINS, 2017, 23, 460–470)
As the standard enucleation method in mammalian nuclear transfer is invasive and damaging to cytoplast spatial organization, alternative procedures have been developed over recent years. Among these techniques, chemically induced enucleation (IE) is especially interesting because it does not employ ultraviolet light and reduces the amount of cytoplasm eliminated during the procedure. The objective of this study was to optimize the culture conditions with demecolcine of pre-activated bovine oocytes for chemically IE, and to evaluate nuclear and microtubule organization in cytoplasts obtained by this technique and their viability. In the first experiment, a negative effect on oocyte activation was verified when demecolcine was added at the beginning of the process, reducing activation rates by approximately 30%. This effect was not observed when demecolcine was added to the medium after 1.5 h of activation. In the second experiment, although a reduction in the number of microtubules was observed in most oocytes, these structures did not disappear completely during assessment. Approximately 50% of treated oocytes presented microtubule reduction at the end of the evaluation period, while 23% of oocytes were observed to exhibit the complete disappearance of these structures and 28% exhibited visible microtubules. These findings indicated the lack of immediate microtubule repolymerization after culture in demecolcine-free medium, a fact that may negatively influence embryonic development. However, cleavage rates of 63.6–70.0% and blastocyst yield of 15.5–24.2% were obtained in the final experiment, without significant differences between techniques, indicating that chemically induced enucleation produces normal embryos.
Four specimens of the peristediid genus Satyrichthys were sampled with bottom long-lines from a depth of 180 m during the VA ‘Farumas’ Reef Fish Survey off North Malé Atoll, Maldives, in 1999. The largest and smallest of these specimens were deposited at Bernice Pauahi Bishop Museum (BPBM 34965, standard length (SL) 278.25 mm; BPBM 41160, SL 413.65 mm). Based on measurements and meristic counts, BPBM 34965 is characterized as Satyrichthys laticeps and BPBM 41160 is characterized as Satyrichthys cf. kikingeri. Satyrichthys laticeps is not only recorded for the first time for the Republic of the Maldives, but also complements distribution data on the species in the north-eastern Indian Ocean. Satyrichthys kikingeri, hitherto known only from a single specimen collected in 2012 from Rasdhoo Atoll in the Maldives, is now documented by a second specimen.
The objective of this study was to explore and contrast the experience and meaning of breathlessness in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) or lung cancer at the end of life.
We conducted a qualitative study embedded in a longitudinal study using topic-guided in-depth interviews with a purposive sample of patients suffering from breathlessness affecting their daily activities due to advanced (primary or secondary) lung cancer or COPD stage III/IV. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using framework analysis.
Ten COPD and eight lung cancer patients were interviewed. Both groups reported similarities in their experience. These included exertion through breathlessness throughout the illness course, losses in their daily activities, and the experience of breathlessness leading to crises. The main difference was the way in which patients adapted to their particular illness experience and the resulting crises over time. While COPD patients more likely sought to get their life with breathlessness under control, speaking of daily living with breathlessness under certain conditions, the participating lung cancer patients often faced the possibility of death and expressed a need for security.
Significance of Results:
Breathlessness leads to crises in patients with advanced disease. Although experiences of patients are similar, reactions and coping mechanisms vary and are more related to the disease and the stage of disease.
Responsibility for health and social care services is being delegated from central to local authorities in an increasing number of countries. In the Netherlands, the planned transfer of responsibility for day care for people with dementia from the central government to municipalities is a case in point. The impacts of this decentralisation process for innovative care concepts such as day care at green care farms are largely unknown. We therefore interviewed representatives of municipalities and green care farms to explore what consequences they expected of decentralisation for their organisations and people with dementia. Our study shows that communication and collaboration between municipalities and green care farms is relatively limited. Consequently, municipalities are insufficiently aware of how green care farms can help them to perform their new tasks and green care farmers know little about what municipalities expect from them in the new situation. We therefore recommend that municipalities and green care farms keep each other informed about their responsibilities, duties and activities to ensure a tailored package of future municipal services for people with dementia.
Research on power-sharing in Africa remains silent on the effects of national peace agreements on the sub-national level. Conversely, most armed conflicts originate and are fought in (or over) specific areas. A plausible hypothesis would be that for power-sharing to have the desired pacifying effect throughout the national territory, it needs to be extended to the local level. Based on fieldwork in six former hotspots in Liberia, Burundi and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) we find that there is hardly any local content, including local power-sharing, in national agreements. However, contrary to our hypothesis, neither local content (inclusion of actors or interest) nor local-power-sharing (either introducing a local power balance or monopoly) are indispensable to effectively bring about local peace, at least in the short-term. On the contrary, it might even endanger the peace process. The importance of the sub-national level is overestimated in some cases and romanticised in others. However, the history of spatial-political links, centralised policies, and the establishment of local balances or monopolies of power ultimately play an important role.
Poor sleep is a risk factor for depression, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms.
Disentangling potential mechanisms by which sleep may be related to depression by zooming downto the ‘micro-level’ of within-person daily life patterns of subjective sleep and affect usingthe experience sampling method (ESM).
A population-based twin sample consisting of 553 women underwent a 5-day baseline ESM protocolassessing subjective sleep and affect together with four follow-up assessments of depression.
Sleep was associated with affect during the next day, especially positive affect. Daytime negative affect was not associated with subsequent night-time sleep. Baseline sleep predicted depressive symptoms across the follow-up period.
The subtle, repetitive impact of sleep on affect on a daily basis, rather than the subtle repetitive impact of affect on sleep, may be one of the factors on the pathway to depression in women.
FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) has repeatedly been shown to be a critical determinant of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression following childhood trauma.
To examine the role of FKBP5-trauma interactions in the partly stress-related psychosis phenotype.
In 401 general population twins, four functional polymorphisms were examined in models of psychosis and Cortisol, and followed up in models of psychosis in three samples at different familial liability (175 controls, 200 unaffected siblings and 195 patients with a psychotic disorder).
The most consistent finding was an interaction between childhood trauma and rs9296158/rs4713916 on psychotic symptoms and Cortisol in the twin sample, combined with a directionally similar interaction in siblings (rs4713916) and patients (rs9296158), A-allele carriers at both polymorphisms being most vulnerable to trauma.
Trauma may increase the risk of psychosis through enduring changes in the Cortisol feedback loop, similar to that for PTSD, suggesting comparable biological mechanisms for psychosis across diagnostic boundaries.
Assigning accurate dates to hypersaline sediments opens important terrestrial records of local and regional paleoecologies and paleoclimatology. However, as of yet no conventional method of dating hypersaline systems has been widely adopted. Biomarker, mineralogical, and radiocarbon analyses of sediments and organic extracts from a shallow (13 cm) core from a hypersaline playa, Lake Tyrrell, southeastern Australia, produce a coherent age-depth curve beginning with modern microbial mats and extending to ~ 7500 cal yr BP. These analyses are furthermore used to identify and constrain the timing of the most recent change in hydrological regime at Lake Tyrrell, a shift from a clay deposit to the precipitation of evaporitic sands occurring at some time between ~ 4500 and 7000 yr. These analyses show the potential for widespread dating of hypersaline systems integrating the biomarker approach, reinforce the value of the radiocarbon content of biomarkers in understanding the flow of carbon in modern ecologies, and validate the temporal dimension of data provided by biomarkers when dating late Quaternary sediments.
Particles of tread rubber debris produced by laboratory wear tests are imaged by light microscopy. The fractal dimension, DF, of the image perimeter is estimated. The sensitivity of DF with respect to the image acquisition and processing parameters is determined. Particles belonging to two types of undifferentiated debris, low severity (LS) and rasping (R), respectively, are analyzed. The values of DF have distributions, which, if suitably interpreted, allow the identification of either debris type with the following conditional probabilities: pLS|LS = 0.71 and pR|R = 0.81. The procedure can be eventually applied to environmental impact studies.
Background: Deposition of amyloid β in senile plaques and in cerebral blood vessels is one hallmark of the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The ability of several matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) to degrade amyloid precursor protein leading to aggregation of amyloid β, as well as the increased expression of MMPs in post mortem brain tissue of Alzheimer's patients, indicate that MMPs play an important role in the pathogenesis of AD.
Methods: We investigated levels of MMP-2,-3,-9 and -10 in plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients (n = 14) by gelatin and casein zymography. Comparisons between AD patients and controls relative to levels of MMP-2, MMP-3, MMP-9, and MMP-10 were made with Wilcoxon rank statistics. Pearson correlations were computed as measures of association.
Results: MMP-3 in AD was significantly elevated in plasma (p = 0.006) and there was a trend towards increase in CSF (p = 0.05). MMP-2 in CSF of AD patients was significantly decreased (p = 0.02) while levels in plasma remained unchanged. MMP-9 and MMP-10 could not be detected in CSF; MMP-10 was unchanged in plasma, but MMP-9 was significantly decreased (p = 0.02).
Conclusions: These findings constitute further evidence for the important role of MMPs in the pathogenesis of AD.
Neither in music historical publications nor in major compendiums or encyclopaedias do we find chapters or articles on eighteenth-century German opera. Instead, the Italian dramma per musica (later called opera seria) and the French tragédie lyrique appear as stand-ins for the serious German Baroque opera, and opera buffa, also called commedia per musica by contemporaries and later dramma giocoso, alongside opéra-comique, as designations for the lighter comic complement. There is also the German ‘Singspiel’, but is a singspiel an opera? And why does German Baroque opera, which has received substantial scholarly attention, not appear in digests of the history of opera?
These are just a few of the questions resulting from the particularities and difficulties of German opera that do not apply in the same way to Italian or French opera in the eighteenth century. We will approach very pragmatically the problem of what constitutes ‘German’ within the ‘Holy Roman Empire of German Nations’ whose Emperor was crowned in Frankfurt, resided in Vienna, was King of Bohemia and Hungary and also reigned in Upper Italy: we will include operas where at least the recitative texts were written in German and where the libretto was set by a German composer for performance on a German stage. The second problem arises from the fact that the German Empire was split into more than thirty principalities and also included several free imperial cities. Their musical life has only been partially explored thus far, making a comprehensive account at present virtually impossible.
As an important step in the nuclear transfer (NT) procedure, we evaluated the effect of three different treatments for oocyte activation on the in vitro and in vivo developmental capacity of bovine reconstructed embryos: (1) strontium, which has been successfully used in mice but not yet tested in cattle; (2) ionomycin and 6-dimethylaminopurine (6-DMAP), a standard treatment used in cattle; (3) ionomycin and strontium, in place of 6-DMAP. As regards NT blastocyst development, no difference was observed when strontium (20.1%) or ionomycin/6-DMAP (14.4%) were used. However, when 6-DMAP was substituted by strontium (3), the blastocyst rate (34.8%) was superior to that in the other activation groups (p <0.05). Results of in vivo development showed the possibility of pregnancies when NT embryos activated in strontium were transferred to recipient cows (16.6%). A live female calf was obtained when ionomycin/strontium were used, but it died 30 days after birth. Our findings show that strontium can be used as an activation agent in bovine cloning procedures and that activation with a combination of strontium and ionomycin increased the in vitro developmental capacity of reconstructed embryos. This is the first report of a calf produced by adult somatic cell NT in Latin America.
To date, no study has used standardised diagnostic assessment procedures to determine whether rates of perinatal depression vary across cultures.
To adapt the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM–IV Disorders (SCID) for assessing depression and other non-psychotic psychiatric illness perinatally and to pilot the instrument in different centres and cultures.
Assessments using the adapted SCID and the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale were conducted during the third trimester of pregnancy and at 6 months postpartum with 296 women from ten sites in eight countries. Point prevalence rates during pregnancy and the postnatal period and adjusted 6-month period prevalence rates were computed for caseness, depression and major depression.
The third trimester and 6-month point prevalence rates for perinatal depression were 6.9% and 8.0%, respectively. Postnatal 6-month period prevalence rates for perinatal depression ranged from 2.1% to 31.6% across centres and there were significant differences in these rates between centres.
Study findings suggest that the SCID was successfully adapted for this context. Further research on determinants of differences inprevalence of depression across cultures isneeded.
The development and reproduction of 60 clones of Sitobion avenae (Fabricius), collected in the Rennes Basin, were compared on a resistant Triticum monococcum (Linnaeus) line (Tm44) and a susceptible Triticum aestivum (Linnaeus) cultivar (Arminda). All clones had lower larval survival and mean fecundity when reared on Tm44 in comparison with Arminda. They all performed equally well on Arminda whereas there was a marked and continuously distributed variation in performance parameters among clones maintained on Tm44. The plant species, from which clones originated, significantly affected aphid performances on resistant Tm44. A more detailed experiment was carried out with four clones, shown to differ in their level of fitness on Tm44. Their performances were compared on resistant (Tm44 and Tm46) and susceptible (Tm47 and Arminda) wheat genotypes. On the basis of larval development time and intrinsic rate of natural increase (rm), two types of response were distinguished among the four clones: clones Sa1 and Sa39 appeared to be less affected by Tm44 and Tm46 resistance than Sar2 and Sa48. Moreover, Tm46 was much less resistant to clone Sal than was Tm44. These results are discussed in relation to the origins of the variation in performance of S. avenae on resistant wheat, and their implications in plant breeding for resistance to S. avenae.
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