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Horizontal and vertical distribution of cephalopod paralarvae (PL) from the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) in the Western Caribbean was studied during two oceanographic cruises in 2006 and 2007. A total of 1034 PL belonging to 12 families, 22 genera, 24 species, 5 morphotypes and a species complex were identified. Abralia redfieldi, Onychoteuthis banksii and Ornithoteuthis antillarum were the most abundant taxa. The taxonomic identification from these three species was corroborated with DNA barcoding (99.8–100% of similarity). Paralarvae of Octopus insularis were reported for the first time in the wild. Most PL occupied the Caribbean Surface Water mass in the 0–25 m depth stratum. Largest paralarval abundances were related to local oceanographic features favouring retention such as the Honduras Gyre and Cozumel eddy. No day-night differences were found in PL abundance, although Abralia redfieldi showed evidence of diel vertical migration. Distribution of PL in epipelagic waters of the MBRS was probably related to ontogenetic migration, hydrographic features of meso and subscale, and to the circulation regimes dominated by the Yucatan Current. The MBRS represents an important dispersion area for PL, potentially connecting a species-rich Caribbean community with the Gulf of Mexico and Florida waters.
Automatic detection of negated content is often a prerequisite in information extraction systems in various domains. In the biomedical domain especially, this task is important because negation plays an important role. In this work, two main contributions are proposed. First, we work with languages which have been poorly addressed up to now: Brazilian Portuguese and French. Thus, we developed new corpora for these two languages which have been manually annotated for marking up the negation cues and their scope. Second, we propose automatic methods based on supervised machine learning approaches for the automatic detection of negation marks and of their scopes. The methods show to be robust in both languages (Brazilian Portuguese and French) and in cross-domain (general and biomedical languages) contexts. The approach is also validated on English data from the state of the art: it yields very good results and outperforms other existing approaches. Besides, the application is accessible and usable online. We assume that, through these issues (new annotated corpora, application accessible online, and cross-domain robustness), the reproducibility of the results and the robustness of the NLP applications will be augmented.
This paper presents new excavation data on the Chinchihuapi I (CH-I) locality within the Monte Verde site complex, located along Chinchihuapi Creek in the cool, temperate Valdivian rain forest of south-central Chile. The 2017 and 2018 archaeological excavations carried out in this open-air locality reveal further that CH-I is an intermittently occupied site dating from the Early Holocene (~10,000 cal yr BP) to the late Pleistocene (at least ~14,500 cal yr BP) and probably earlier. A new series of radiocarbon dates refines the chronology of human use of the site during this period. In this paper, we describe the archaeological and stratigraphic contexts of the recent excavations and analyze the recovered artifact assemblages. A fragmented Monte Verde II point type on an exotic quartz newly recovered from excavations at CH-I indicates that this biface design existed in at least two areas of the wider site complex ~14,500 cal yr BP. In addition, associated with the early Holocene component at CH-I are later Paijan-like points recovered with lithic tools and debris and other materials. We discuss the geographic distribution of diagnostic artifacts from the site and their probable relationship to other early sites in South America.
The aim of the study was to evaluate the food intake of pregnant women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) according to two methods of dietary guidance. A randomised controlled clinical trial was conducted by appointment with a nutritionist and by using data from hospital records (2011–2014). The study population comprised adult women diagnosed with GDM treated in a public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The control group (CG) received nutritional advice by the traditional method and the intervention group (IG) were instructed on carbohydrate counting. The analysis of food intake and the consumption of processed foods (PF) and ultra-processed foods (UPF) were evaluated in the second and third trimester. A total of 286 pregnant women were initially assessed (145 in the CG and 141 in the IG). It was observed that 89/120 (74·2 %) and 183/229 (79·9 %) consumed PF daily in the second and third trimesters, respectively, whereas 117/120 (97·5 %) and 225/231 (97·4 %) consumed UPF daily in the second and third trimesters, respectively. When analysing the intake of macronutrients (%) by quartiles, women who had fat intake in the third quartile had the highest average postprandial blood glucose compared with those who consumed fat in the second quartile (P=0·02). The consumption of PF and UPF was high and dietary intake was similar in both groups, regardless of dietary guidance method deployed, suggesting that both methods tested in the study can be used for monitoring the nutritional status of pregnant women with GDM.
The objective of the current experiment was to determine the effects of increasing levels of palm kernel cake in a finishing diet on feed intake, digestibility, performance, ingestive behaviour and carcass traits in zebu bulls. Thirty-two Nellore bulls (420 ± 25.0 kg initial body weight [BW] and 24-months-old), were assigned randomly to individual pens with four treatments (0, 70, 140 and 210 g/kg of palm kernel cake by total dry matter [DM]) and eight replicates per treatment. The inclusion of palm kernel cake linearly decreased DM, crude protein and non-fibrous carbohydrate intake and increased ether extraction intake and digestibility. There was a linear decrease in final BW and hot carcass weight (HCW) associated with palm kernel cake inclusion in the bull diet. However, the gain : feed ratio was similar among the diets. Eating and rumination rates (g DM or neutral detergent fibre/h) were reduced, whereas the total chewing time and idling (min/day) were not affected by palm kernel cake inclusion. There were no effects of palm kernel cake inclusion on most quantitative carcass characteristics and qualitative carcass attributes (subcutaneous fat thickness, longissimus muscle area, colour, texture and marbling). The inclusion of palm kernel cake (up to 210 g/kg total DM) in beef cattle finishing diets decreased eating and rumination rates, thereby decreasing average daily gain and, consequently, final BW and HCW. However, qualitative carcass attributes were not affected by the use of palm kernel cake.
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the association between depression and SSRI monotherapy and frailty both baseline and prospectively in older adults.
Prospective cohort study, 12-month follow-up.
Geriatric outpatient clinic in São Paulo, Brazil.
A total of 811 elderly adults aged 60 or older.
Depression was diagnosed as follows: (1) a diagnosis of major depression disorder (MDD) according to DSM-5; or (2) an incomplete diagnosis of MDD, referred to as minor or subsyndromic depression, plus Geriatric Depression Scale 15-itens ≥ 6 points, and social or functional impairment secondary to depressive symptoms and observed by relatives. Frailty evaluation was performed through the FRAIL questionnaire, which is a self-rated scale. Trained investigators blinded to the baseline assessment conducted telephone calls to evaluate frailty after 12-month follow-up. The association between depression and the use of SSRI with frailty was estimated through a generalized estimating equation adjusted for age, gender, total drugs, and number of comorbidities.
Depression with SSRI use was associated with frailty at baseline (OR 2.82, 95% CI = 1.69–4.69) and after 12 months (OR 2.75, 95% CI = 1.84–4.11). Additionally, depression with SSRI monotherapy was also associated with FRAIL subdomains Physical Performance (OR 1.99, 95% CI = 1.29–3.07) and Health Status (OR 4.64, 95% CI = 2.11–10.21). SSRI use, without significant depressive symptoms, was associated with subdomain Health Status (OR 1.52, 95% CI = 1.04–2.23).
It appears that depression with SSRI is associated to frailty, and this association cannot be explained only by antidepressant use.
This work characterizes Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in Gastre, Northern Patagonia, Argentina. These newly found porphyritic rocks bear an 40Ar–39Ar amphibole age of ~ 74–76 Ma, a subduction-type geochemical signature and a deep, garnet-bearing source. Extruded in a stage of low magmatic activity in the Northern Patagonian Andes (~ 41–44° S), they could represent an eastward migration of the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that was associated with a regional compressive deformational stage in the South American margin.
We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and factors associated with Schistosoma mansoni infection in Brazil. We searched the PubMed, Web of Science and Latin-American and Caribbean System on Health Sciences Information (LILACS) databases, scientific publications articles, according to The PRISMA Statement, from 2000 to 2016. A total of 27 studies were included according to the established criteria. The prevalence of S. mansoni infection varied widely, from 0·1 to 73·1%, based on Kato-Katz technique. Of the identified studies, 42·9% were performed in the state of Minas Gerais, and 33·3% were performed in the northeast region of Brazil. We identified sex, age, education level, family income, contact with water and the presence of the intermediate host snail as major risk factors associated with infection. The meta-analysis summarized a high prevalence rate pooled for Schistosoma mansoni. On the other hand, the analysis of the subgroup showed a highly significant reduction of the prevalence rate after control measures. The epidemiological factors evidenced in the studies show the influence of environmental and social conditions on the occurrence of schistosomiasis.
Hearing loss is frequent in old age and has been associated with fewer social activities and depression. However, hearing problems have also been associated with other comorbidities, which prevent more definitive conclusions about the unique role on older people's wellbeing. Moreover, little attention has been paid to the psychological processes through which this relationship occurs. This study aims to investigate the effect of hearing loss on older adults’ wellbeing from a longitudinal perspective. Using data from three points in time, we investigated the mutual relationship between hearing loss, depression and social activities. Based on longitudinal data of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) from ten European countries, we conducted the test of competing auto-regressive cross-lagged theoretical models. Results show that hearing loss reduces social activity, which is mediated by depression. The adequacy of this model (versus a model proposing that social activity restriction mediates the relationship between hearing loss and depression) was supported in each of the countries of the sample. Findings showing that hearing loss can contribute to depression and, subsequently, to restriction in social activities have implications for early detection and clinical interventions on hearing loss.
This study evaluated the effects of a post-weaning high-fat (HF) diet on somatic growth, food consumption, metabolic parameters, phagocytic rate and nitric oxide (NO) production of peritoneal macrophages in young rats submitted to a maternal low-protein (LP) diet. Male Wistar rats (aged 60 d) were divided in two groups (n 22/each) according to their maternal diet during gestation and lactation: control (C, dams fed 17 % casein) and LP (dams fed 8 % casein). At weaning, half of the groups were fed HF diet and two more groups were formed (HF and low protein–high fat (LP-HF)). Somatic growth, food and energy intake, fat depots, serum glucose, cholesterol and leptin concentrations were evaluated. Phagocytic rate and NO production were analysed in peritoneal macrophages under stimulation of zymosan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)+interferon γ (IFN-γ), respectively. The maternal LP diet altered the somatic parameters of growth and development of pups. LP and LP-HF pups showed a higher body weight gain and food intake than C pups. HF and LP-HF pups showed increased retroperitoneal and epididymal fat depots, serum level of TAG and total cholesterol compared with C and LP pups. After LPS+IFN-γ stimulation, LP and LP-HF pups showed reduced NO production when compared with their pairs. Increased phagocytic activity and NO production were seen in LP but not LP-HF peritoneal macrophages. However, peritoneal macrophages of LP pups were hyporesponsive to LPS+IFN-γ induced NO release, even after a post-weaning HF diet. Our data demonstrated that there was an immunomodulation related to dietary fatty acids after the maternal LP diet-induced metabolic programming.
This study aimed to contribute to the validation of the Portuguese version of the Prolonged Grief Disorder Questionnaire–Predeath (PG–12), examining its psychometric properties, including factorial, discriminant, and predictive validity. The prevalence of predeath prolonged grief disorder (PGD) and its psychosocial correlates were also analyzed.
The PG–12 was assessed in a sample of family caregivers (FCs) of oncological patients in palliative care. The factorial and discriminant validity of the PG–12 were evaluated by confirmatory factor analysis. The prevalence of predeath PGD was calculated and correlated with sociodemographic characteristics, perception of illness, intensity of care, coping, and caregiver burden. Prospective data were used to assess predictive validity.
The sample was composed of 94 FCs, mostly female (78.8%) and daughters (61.3%), with a mean age of 52.02 (SD = 12.87). The PG–12 has been shown to be reliable, to have high internal consistency, to be monofactorial in structure, and to be independent from depression, anxiety, and burden, although predeath grief influences these symptoms. In our sample, 33% met the criteria for predeath PGD. The circumstances and coping mechanisms are also correlated with predeath grief. The PG–12 has also been shown to be predictive of postdeath outcome.
Significance of results:
The PG–12 can be a useful screening tool for early identification of risk for maladjustment to loss among family caregivers.
Objectives: Hospital-based health technology assessment (HTA) has become increasingly important in Brazil due to its strategic importance to promote adoption, incorporation, dissemination, and disinvestment of technologies. A strategy to foster hospital-based HTA was implemented in 2009 by creating hospital-based HTA nuclei (NATS) at university hospitals and other strategic hospitals.
Methods: Between 2011 and 2012, we interviewed board members in twenty-three NATS located in all geographic regions of Brazil to assess their general characteristics, scientific output, and challenges.
Results: Of the total, 65 percent of the NATS belonged to teaching institutions, with 44 percent associated with federal universities. The bulk of their output was in the form of mini-HTA reports. Centers in the Southeast and South of Brazil had the highest production compared with other regions. Lack of expertise and low levels of advanced training were identified as limiting factors in the majority of centers.
Conclusions: The experience of the initial twenty-three NATS could be considered positive and has led to the creation of new ones around Brazil. Regional disparities in workload, production, and technical training should be targeted by new policies toward hospital-based HTA in Brazil. The limits and possibilities for intensifying the strategy relate to continuous investment in priority studies, which simultaneously, allow professionals who work in hospitals to receive continued education and produce relevant HTA work in a timely manner.
Microelectrodes have attracted great interest for electroanalysis because of their unique properties, such as nonlinear diffusion, increased rate of mass transport and reduced capacitance, which allows a fast response. In this work, we created a porous nanocomposite of boron doped diamond (BDD) deposited on carbon nanotubes – reduced graphene oxide (CNTs – RGO) by Hot Filament Chemical Vapor Deposition (HFCVD) technique. The resulting material yielded porous BDD microelectrodes. On the first step, we have grown the CNTs on carbon fiber (CF) surface by Thermal CVD in a tubular reactor. Camphor solution and Fe-Co were carbon and catalyst source, respectively. For exfoliation, CNTs were treated by hydrogen plasma and oxygen plasma. We applied a seeding solution containing nanodiamond dispersed in KCl aqueous solution. Diamond nanoparticles interact with oxygen-containing groups on CNTs, promoting an efficient seeding. We deposited BDD films in an HFCVD reactor using methane/hydrogen gas mixtures. For doping, a partial hydrogen flow bubbled in a closed vessel containing a solution of boron oxide dissolved in methanol. The microelectrodes were characterized by Raman Scattering Spectroscopy, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Field Emission Gun and Cyclic Voltammetry. The crystalline quality of CNTs and BDD doping level were studied by Raman analysis. SEM micrographs showed that nanocomposite presented high porosity. Electrochemical analysis showed that the deposition of BDD on CNTs-RGO increased the electrochemical response of the microelectrode. Besides, this electrode presented a low capacitive current in comparison with BDD grown on flat substrates. Further, the porous BDD nanocomposite showed itself to be promising in electroanalysis.
The fish fauna in the State of Acre represents 10·7% of all fish species recorded from Brazil, but, despite this, there are few fish parasite studies in this area. The recent expansion of fish farming in Acre prompted a need for helminthological studies of the most commonly consumed fish species in the area, Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodidae). The aim of this study was to analyse the helminth fauna of P. blochii from the Acre and Xapuri Rivers in Northwestern Brazil. Numerous nematodes were collected from the intestine and two species of the family Atractidae were identified: Rondonia rondoni Travassos, 1920 and Orientatractis moraveci n. sp. The new species is distinguished from its congeners mainly by having: 10 pairs of caudal papillae (3 pairs pre-cloacal, 2 pairs ad-cloacal and 5 pairs post-cloacal); unequal spicules of 161–198 and 69–100 µm long; and a gubernaculum 38–58 µm long with an antero-lateral process. Morphological and ultrastructural data on O. moraveci n. sp. and R. rondoni are presented, in addition to new genetic data based on partial 18S rDNA and 28S rDNA. The taxonomic status of Labeonema synodontisi (Vassiliadès, 1973) is discussed, suggesting that it should be returned to the genus Raillietnema.
Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) cytokine is involved in Chagas disease establishment and progression. Since Trypanosoma cruzi can modulate host cell receptors, we analysed the TGF-β receptor type II (TβRII) expression and distribution during T. cruzi – cardiomyocyte interaction. TβRII immunofluorescent staining revealed a striated organization in cardiomyocytes, which was co-localized with vinculin costameres and enhanced (38%) after TGF-β treatment. Cytochalasin D induced a decrease of 45·3% in the ratio of cardiomyocytes presenting TβRII striations, demonstrating an association of TβRII with the cytoskeleton. Western blot analysis showed that cytochalasin D significantly inhibited Smad 2 phosphorylation and fibronectin stimulation after TGF-β treatment in cardiomyocytes. Trypanosoma cruzi infection elicited a decrease of 79·8% in the frequency of cardiomyocytes presenting TβRII striations, but did not interfere significantly in its expression. In addition, T. cruzi-infected cardiomyocytes present a lower response to exogenous TGF-β, showing no enhancement of TβRII striations and a reduction of phosphorylated Smad 2, with no significant difference in TβRII expression when compared to uninfected cells. Together, these results suggest that the co-localization of TβRII with costameres is important in activating the TGF-β signalling cascade, and that T. cruzi-derived cytoskeleton disorganization could result in altered or low TGF-β response in infected cardiomyocytes.
To describe the prevalence and determinants of gestational night blindness in pregnant women receiving care in a hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Cross-sectional study of pregnant and postpartum women receiving care in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro from 1999 to 2001 (group I; n 225) or from 2005 to 2008 (group II; n 381). Night blindness was identified through a standardized and validated interview (WHO, 1996). The determinants of gestational night blindness were identified through a hierarchical logistic regression model.
Public maternity hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.
Adult pregnant and postpartum women (n 606), aged ≥20 years.
The prevalence of gestational night blindness was 9·9 %. The final model revealed that not living in the South Zone of Rio de Janeiro (distal level: adjusted OR=1·846; 95 % CI 1·002, 3·401), belonging to group I (intermediate level: adjusted OR=2·183; 95 % CI 1·066, 4·471) and for the proximal level, having a history of abortion (adjusted OR=2·840; 95 % CI 1·134, 7·115) and having anaemia during the first and second trimesters of pregnancy (adjusted OR=3·776; 95 % CI 1·579, 9·029) were determinants of gestational night blindness.
Gestational night blindness should be assessed for during the prenatal care of all pregnant women, especially those living in deprived areas of the city and/or who have a history of abortion or anaemia. Nutritional monitoring is recommended during pregnancy to control gestational night blindness.
The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a protein-free diet in the induction of food allergy and oral tolerance in BALB/c mice. The experimental model used was mice that were fed, since weaning up to adulthood, a balanced diet in which all dietary proteins were replaced by amino acid diet (Aa). The absence of dietary proteins did not prevent the development of food allergy to ovalbumin (OVA) in these mice. However, Aa-fed mice produced lower levels of IgE, secretory IgA and cytokines. In addition, when compared with mice from control group, Aa-fed mice had a milder aversive reaction to the allergen measured by consumption of OVA-containing solution and weight loss during food allergy development. In addition, mice that did not have dietary proteins in their diets were less susceptible to induction of oral tolerance. One single oral administration was not enough to suppress specific serum Ig and IgG1 levels in the Aa-fed group, although it was efficient to induce suppression in the control group. The present results indicate that the stimulation by dietary proteins alters both inflammatory reactivity and regulatory immune reactivity in mice probably due to their effect in the maturation of the immune system.
Prebiotics may increase intestinal Fe absorption in anaemic growing rats. The present study evaluated the effects of high-performance (HP) inulin and oligofructose on factors that regulate Fe absorption in anaemic rats during the growth phase. Male Wistar rats aged 21 d of age were fed AIN-93G ration without Fe for 2 weeks to induce Fe-deficiency anaemia. The rats were fed on day 35 a control diet, or a diet with 10 % HP inulin, or a diet with 10 % oligofructose, without Fe supplementation. The animals were euthanised after 2 weeks, and segments of the duodenum, caecum, colon and liver were removed. The expression levels of proteins in the intestinal segments were assessed using Western blotting. The levels of serum, urine and liver hepcidin and the concentrations of IL-10, IL-6 and TNF-α in the caecum, colon and liver were measured using the ELISA test. HP inulin increased the expression of the divalent metal transporter 1 protein in the caecum by 162 % (P= 0·04), and the expression of duodenal cytochrome b reductase in the colon by 136 % (P= 0·02). Oligofructose decreased the expression of the protein ferroportin in the duodenum (P= 0·02), the concentrations of IL-10 (P= 0·044), IL-6 (P= 0·036) and TNF-α (P= 0·004) in the caecum, as well as the level of urinary hepcidin (P< 0·001). These results indicate that prebiotics may interfere with the expression of various intestinal proteins and systemic factors involved in the regulation of intestinal Fe absorption in anaemic rats during the growth phase.