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We present TreeFrog, a massively parallel halo merger tree builder that is capable comparing different halo catalogues and producing halo merger trees. The code is written in c++11, use the MPI and OpenMP API’s for parallelisation, and includes python tools to read/manipulate the data products produced. The code correlates binding energy sorted particle ID lists between halo catalogues, determining optimal descendant/progenitor matches using multiple snapshots, a merit function that maximises the number of shared particles using pseudo-radial moments, and a scheme for correcting halo merger tree pathologies. Focusing on VELOCIraptor catalogues for this work, we demonstrate how searching multiple snapshots spanning a dynamical time significantly reduces the number of stranded halos, those lacking a descendant or a progenitor, critically correcting poorly resolved halos. We present a new merit function that improves the distinction between primary and secondary progenitors, reducing tree pathologies. We find FOF accretion rates and merger rates show similar mass ratio dependence. The model merger rates from Poole, et al. [2017, 472, 3659] agree with the measured net growth of halos through mergers.
We present VELOCIraptor, a massively parallel galaxy/(sub)halo finder that is also capable of robustly identifying tidally disrupted objects and separate stellar halos from galaxies. The code is written in C++11, use the Message Passing Interface (MPI) and OpenMP Application Programming Interface (API) for parallelisation, and includes python tools to read/manipulate the data products produced. We demonstrate the power of the VELOCIraptor (sub)halo finder, showing how it can identify subhalos deep within the host that have negligible density contrasts to their parent halo. We find a subhalo mass-radial distance dependence: large subhalos with mass ratios of ≳10−2 are more common in the central regions than smaller subhalos, a result of dynamical friction and low tidal mass loss rates. This dependence is completely absent in (sub)halo finders in common use, which generally search for substructure in configuration space, yet is present in codes that track particles belonging to halos as they fall into other halos, such as hbt+. VELOCIraptor largely reproduces the dependence seen without tracking, finding a similar radial dependence to hbt+ in well-resolved halos from our limited resolution fiducial simulation.
Until a decade ago, galaxy formation simulations were unable to simultaneously reproduce the observed angular momentum (AM) of galaxy disks and bulges. Improvements in the interstellar medium and stellar feedback modelling, together with advances in computational capabilities, have allowed the current generation of cosmological galaxy formation simulations to reproduce the diversity of AM and morphology that is observed in local galaxies. In this review I discuss where we currently stand in this area from the perspective of hydrodynamical simulations, specifically how galaxies gain their AM, and the effect galaxy mergers and gas accretion have on this process. I discuss results which suggest that a revision of the classical theory of disk formation is needed, and by discussing what the current challenges are.
Second language speakers often struggle to apply grammatical constraints such as subject–verb agreement. One hypothesis for this difficulty is that it results from problems suppressing syntactically unlicensed constituents in working memory. We investigated which properties of these constituents make them more likely to elicit errors: their grammatical distance to the subject head or their linear distance to the verb. We used double modifier constructions (e.g., the smell of the stables of the farmers), where the errors of native speakers are modulated by the linguistic relationships between the nouns in the subject phrase: second plural nouns, which are syntactically and semantically closer to the subject head, elicit more errors than third plural nouns, which are linearly closer to the verb (2nd-3rd-noun asymmetry). In order to dissociate between grammatical and linear distance, we compared embedded and coordinated modifiers, which were linearly identical but differed in grammatical distance. Using an attraction paradigm, we showed that German native speakers and proficient Russian speakers of German exhibited similar attraction rates and that their errors displayed a 2nd-3rd-noun asymmetry, which was more pronounced in embedded than in coordinated constructions. We suggest that both native and second language learners prioritize linguistic structure over linear distance in their agreement computations.
The Taipan galaxy survey (hereafter simply ‘Taipan’) is a multi-object spectroscopic survey starting in 2017 that will cover 2π steradians over the southern sky (δ ≲ 10°, |b| ≳ 10°), and obtain optical spectra for about two million galaxies out to z < 0.4. Taipan will use the newly refurbished 1.2-m UK Schmidt Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory with the new TAIPAN instrument, which includes an innovative ‘Starbugs’ positioning system capable of rapidly and simultaneously deploying up to 150 spectroscopic fibres (and up to 300 with a proposed upgrade) over the 6° diameter focal plane, and a purpose-built spectrograph operating in the range from 370 to 870 nm with resolving power R ≳ 2000. The main scientific goals of Taipan are (i) to measure the distance scale of the Universe (primarily governed by the local expansion rate, H0) to 1% precision, and the growth rate of structure to 5%; (ii) to make the most extensive map yet constructed of the total mass distribution and motions in the local Universe, using peculiar velocities based on improved Fundamental Plane distances, which will enable sensitive tests of gravitational physics; and (iii) to deliver a legacy sample of low-redshift galaxies as a unique laboratory for studying galaxy evolution as a function of dark matter halo and stellar mass and environment. The final survey, which will be completed within 5 yrs, will consist of a complete magnitude-limited sample (i ⩽ 17) of about 1.2 × 106 galaxies supplemented by an extension to higher redshifts and fainter magnitudes (i ⩽ 18.1) of a luminous red galaxy sample of about 0.8 × 106 galaxies. Observations and data processing will be carried out remotely and in a fully automated way, using a purpose-built automated ‘virtual observer’ software and an automated data reduction pipeline. The Taipan survey is deliberately designed to maximise its legacy value by complementing and enhancing current and planned surveys of the southern sky at wavelengths from the optical to the radio; it will become the primary redshift and optical spectroscopic reference catalogue for the local extragalactic Universe in the southern sky for the coming decade.
Lagos, Padilla & Cora (2009) show that if alignments between the galaxy kinematics and the AGN system were to occur, massive galaxies should host BHs with high spin values, regardless of the detailed physics of the BH. Since the BH spin regulates the mass-to-energy conversion (Marconi et al. 2004) and possibly the existence of radio jets (Sikora et al. 2007), this study has a strong impact in our understanding of galaxy formation.
A semi-analytic model of galaxy formation with and without active galactic nuclei feedback is used to study the nature of possible building blocks (BBs) of z = 0 galaxies, including those of Milky-Way types. We find that BBs can show an important range of properties arising from environmental variables such as host halo mass, and whether a galaxy is a satellite within its host halo; the stellar formation histories are comparatively faster and the chemical enrichment is more efficient in BBs than in surviving satellites, in accordance with recent metallicity measurements for the Milky Way. These results can be used in combination with observational constraints to continue probing the ability of the cold dark-matter scenario to reproduce the history of galaxy demography in the Universe.
Color vision impairment was examined in patients with type 2 diabetes
mellitus (DM2) without retinopathy. We assessed the type and degree of
distortions of individual color spaces. DM2 patients (n = 32),
and age-matched controls (n = 20) were tested using the
Farnsworth D-15 and the Lanthony D-15d tests. In addition, subsets of caps
from both tests were employed in a triadic procedure (Bimler &
Kirkland, 2004). Matrices of inter-cap
subjective dissimilarities were estimated from each subject's
“odd-one-out” choices, and processed using non-metric
multidimensional scaling. Two-dimensional color spaces, individual and
group (DM2 patients; controls), were reconstructed, with the axes
interpreted as the R/G and B/Y perceptual opponent systems.
Compared to controls, patient results were not significant for the D-15
and D-15d. In contrast, in the triadic procedure the residual distances
were significantly different compared to controls: right eye, P =
0.021, and left eye, P = 0.022. Color space configurations for
the DM2 patients were compressed along the B/Y and R/G dimensions.
The present findings agree with earlier studies demonstrating diffuse
losses in early stages of DM2. The proposed method of testing uses color
spaces to represent discrimination and provides more differentiated
quantitative diagnosis, which may be interpreted as the perceptual color
system affected. In addition, it enables the detection of very mild color
vision impairment that is not captured by the D-15d test. Along with
fundoscopy, individual color spaces may serve for monitoring early
functional changes and thereby to support a treatment strategy.
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