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The aim of the study was to determine the main factors (sociodemographic, anthropometric, lifestyle and health status) associated with high Na excretion in a representative population of Chile.
Na excretion (g/d), a valid marker of Na intake, was determined by urine analysis and Tanaka’s formulas. Blood pressure was measured by trained staff and derived from the mean of three readings recorded after 15 min rest. The associations of Na excretion with blood pressure and the primary correlates of high Na excretion were determined using logistic regression.
Chileans aged ≥15 years.
Participants (n 2913) from the Chilean National Health Survey 2009–2010.
Individuals aged 25 years or over, those who were obese and those who had hypertension, diabetes or metabolic syndrome were more likely to have higher Na excretion. The odds for hypertension increased by 10·2 % per 0·4 g/d increment in Na excretion (OR=1·10; 95 % CI 1·06, 1·14; P < 0·0001). These findings were independent of major confounding factors.
Age, sex, adiposity, sitting behaviours and existing co-morbidities such as diabetes were associated with higher Na excretion levels in the Chilean population. These findings could help policy makers to implement public health strategies tailored towards individuals who are more likely to consume high levels of dietary salt.
This study aimed to evaluate the associations between the muscle mass to visceral fat (MVF) ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors in a large population of college students in Colombia and to propose cut-off points of this index for the metabolic syndrome (MetS). A total of 1464 young adults recruited from the FUPRECOL (Asociación de la Fuerza Prensil con Manifestaciones Tempranas de Riesgo Cardiovascular en Jóvenes y Adultos Colombianos) study were categorised into four groups based on their MVF ratio. Muscle mass and visceral fat level of the participants were measured using a bioelectrical impedance analysis. Cardiometabolic risk factors including lifestyle characteristics, anthropometry, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were assessed. The prevalence of moderate to severe obesity, hypertension and the MetS was higher in subjects in quartile (Q)1 (lower MVF ratio) (P <0·001). ANCOVA revealed that the subjects in Q1 had higher cardiometabolic disturbances, including altered anthropometry, blood pressure, muscle strength and biochemical parameters after adjusting for age and sex compared with young adults in higher MVF ratio quartiles (P <0·001). Muscular mass and physical activity levels were significantly lower in subjects with a lower MVF ratio (P <0·001). The receiver operating characteristic curve analyses indicated that in men the best MVF ratio cut-off point for detecting the MetS was 18·0 (AUC 0·83, sensitivity 78 % and specificity 77 %) and for women, the MVF ratio cut-off point was 13·7 (AUC 0·85, sensitivity 76 % and specificity 87 %). A lower MVF ratio is associated with a higher risk cardiometabolic profile in early adulthood, supporting that the MVF ratio could be used as a complementary screening tool that may help clinicians identify young adults at high cardiometabolic risk.
This work characterizes Late Cretaceous calc-alkaline volcanic rocks in Gastre, Northern Patagonia, Argentina. These newly found porphyritic rocks bear an 40Ar–39Ar amphibole age of ~ 74–76 Ma, a subduction-type geochemical signature and a deep, garnet-bearing source. Extruded in a stage of low magmatic activity in the Northern Patagonian Andes (~ 41–44° S), they could represent an eastward migration of the Late Cretaceous magmatic arc that was associated with a regional compressive deformational stage in the South American margin.
The use of chimeric molecules fusing several antigenic determinants is a promising strategy for the development of low-cost, standardized and reliable kits to determine specific antibodies. In this study, we designed and assessed a novel recombinant chimera that complements the performance of our previously developed chimera, CP1 [FRA and SAPA antigens (Ags)], to diagnose chronic Chagas disease. The new chimeric protein, named CP3, is composed of MAP, TcD and TSSAII/V/VI antigenic determinants. We compared the performance of both chimeric Ags using a panel of 67 Trypanosoma cruzi-reactive sera and 67 non-reactive ones. The sensitivity of CP3 vs CP1 was 100 and 90.2%, and specificity was 92.5 and 100%, respectively. The mixture of CP1 + CP3 achieved 100% of sensitivity and specificity. More importantly, an additional subset of 17 sera from patients with discordant results of conventional serological methods was analysed; the CP1 + CP3 mixture allowed us to accurately classify 14 of them with respect to IIF, the usual technique used in most of the reference centres. These results show an improved performance of the CP1 + CP3 mixture in comparison with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect haemagglutination commercial assays.
The aim of the present study was to systematically review and perform a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies exploring the association between dietary legume consumption and CVD risk, including CHD and stroke.
The PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched up to December 2015. A meta-analysis of the highest v. lowest (reference) category of dietary legume consumption was performed through random-effects models.
Fourteen studies conducted on eleven cohorts and accounting for a total of 367 000 individuals and 18 475 cases of CVD (7451 CHD and 6336 stroke cases) were considered for the analyses. Compared with lower legume consumption, the highest category of exposure was associated with a decreased risk of 10 % in both CVD and CHD (relative risk=0·90; 95 % CI 0·84, 0·97) with no or little evidence of heterogeneity and no publication bias. Null results were found regarding legume consumption and stroke risk. No substantial confounding factors were evident in stratified analyses.
Legume consumption was associated with lower risk of CVD. Legumes’ intrinsic characteristics, because they are often part of an overall healthy diet, or because they are a substitute for unhealthy sources of protein may potentially explain the current findings.
Aluminum titanium oxynitride (TiAlNO) coatings were deposited on 316 steel substrates by the sputtering technique, varying the nitrogen flow from 2.5, 5, 7.5 to 10 sccm, and maintaining constant at 12 sccm the flow argon gas. We used targets of titanium and alumina with 99.995% purity. The hardness and tribological analyses were determined by Vickers microhardness and tribology (tribometer pin-disc), respectively. The results show that the coating with a nitrogen flow of 10 sccm had the lowest volumetric wear (2.047738693 mm3) and the maximum value of hardness (11.2 GPa). Analysis of X-ray diffraction evidenced the presence of three crystalline phases: Ti2N, Al2O3 and TiO2. It can be observed that by increasing the nitrogen flow, the portion of semi-Ti2N phase increases, Al2O3 decreases and TiO2 remains almost constant, and also producing a change in crystallographic orientation with reference to the Ti2N phase. Crystal grain sizes were estimated by X-ray diffraction Fourier line profile analysis using Warren–Averbach method. This analysis showed a grain size between 5 and 15 nm. Raman spectroscopy results show the presence of the TiO2 phase which corroborated the X-ray diffraction results.
Chitin nanowhiskers were obtained with the purpose to be used as astaxanthin protectors against the photo and thermal degradation. These nanostructures were generated by a freezing/thawing procedure using two stirring methods: mechanical and sonication, which were named as FTM and FTS respectively. Morphological and spectroscopic studies were carried out on chitin nanowhiskers by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Through a SEM analysis, chitin fibers were found uniformly spaced and oriented with the width ranged from of 20-40 nm. Furthermore, the nanowhiskers obtained by FTM showed long and flattened structures and bundles of homogeneous sizes, which have the capacity of being sites of stress concentration. In contrast, by FTS, the nanowhiskers showed coarse fibers exhibiting numerous peaks. By comparing the two methods is appreciated that FTS method provides more surface area, giving more sites for functionalization. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) allowed the determination of free movement of functional groups on the surface of samples obtained by FTM and FTS methods. Significant differences of signals in the spectra indicate that there were more unassociated amides in the nanowhiskers obtained by FTS than by FTM.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were synthesized by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) from diethyl ether, butanol, hexane and ethyl acetate. A quartz tube with a stainless steel tube catalyst core with 0.019 m diameter and 0.6 m large formed the reactor. To avoid combustion, argon was used as the carrier gas. Time process ranged 30 to 60 min. The range of CNTs synthesis temperature was 680-850 °C for different precursors. Scanning Electron Microscopy micrographs have demonstrated tangled CNTs growth in all samples, thus presenting difficult length measurement. The CNTs diameters from diethyl ether are 45-200 nm, butanol diameter range from 55-230 nm, hexane diameter range is 50-130 nm and ethyl acetate range from 100 to 300 nm. Carbon content for all samples was higher than 93 %, CNTs from butanol showed carbon concentration up to 99%. FTIR, Raman and X-Ray Spectroscopies spectra for all samples demonstrated the characteristics signals present in carbon nanotubes. This research proposes a simple, effective and innovative method to synthesize CNTs by CVD on iron stainless steel catalyst in combination with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate, butanol and hexane as precursors by applying the principles of green chemistry, sustainability and its ease to be scaled.
In this work, the deposition and photocatalytic response of V2O5 thin films modified with different amounts of Ag (Ag:V2O5) is reported. Films were deposited on glass and silicon substrates (100), using the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique. A high purity vanadium target, with a different number of silver pellets attached on it were used. Thin films were characterized by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) to determine the elemental chemical composition; structural changes due to the addition of Ag were monitored by Raman spectroscopy; Optical microscopy was used to observe the surface morphology and UV-Vis spectroscopy was employed to determine optical properties. Photocatalytic response of the prepared films was studied through the degradation of a malachite green solution using a solar irradiation source.
This study examined the correlates of dietary energy under-reporting (UR) and over-reporting (OV) in European adolescents. Two self-administered computerised 24-h dietary recalls and physical activity data using accelerometry were collected from 1512 adolescents aged 12·5–17·5 years from eight European countries. Objective measurements of height and weight were obtained. BMI was categorised according to Cole/International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) cut-off points. Diet-related attitudes were assessed via self-administered questionnaires. Reported energy intake (EI) was compared with predicted total energy expenditure to identify UR and OV using individual physical activity objective measures. Associations between misreporting and covariates were examined by multilevel logistic regression analyses. Among all, 33·3 % of the adolescents were UR and 15·6 % were OV when considering mean EI. Overweight (OR 3·25; 95 % CI 2·01, 5·27) and obese (OR 4·31; 95 % CI 1·92, 9·65) adolescents had higher odds for UR, whereas underweight individuals were more likely to over-report (OR 1·67; 95 % CI 1·01, 2·76). Being content with their own figures (OR 0·61; 95 % CI 0·41, 0·89) decreased the odds for UR, whereas frequently skipping breakfast (OR 2·14; 95 % CI 1·53, 2·99) was linked with higher odds for UR. Those being worried about gaining weight (OR 0·55; 95 % CI 0·33, 0·92) were less likely to OV. Weight status and psychosocial weight-related factors were found to be the major correlates of misreporting. Misreporting may reflect socially desirable answers and low ability to report own dietary intakes, but also may reflect real under-eating in an attempt to lose weight or real over-eating to reflect higher intakes due to growth spurts. Factors influencing misreporting should be identified in youths to clarify or better understand diet–disease associations.
Sweet cheese whey has been used to obtain whey cheese without the addition of milk. Pre-treated whey was concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) at different concentration ratios (2, 2·5 and 2·8) or by reverse osmosis (RO) (2–3 times). After the concentration, whey was acidified with lactic acid until a final pH of 4·6–4·8, and heated to temperatures between 85 and 90 °C. The coagulated fraction (supernatant) was collected and freely drained over 4 h. The cheese-whey yield and protein, fat, lactose and ash recoveries in the final product were calculated. The membrane pre-concentration step caused an increase in the whey-cheese yield. The final composition of products was compared with traditional cheese-whey manufacture products (without membrane concentration). Final cheese yields found were to be between 5 and 19·6%, which are higher than those achieved using the traditional ‘Requesón’ process.
To compare judgements of nutrition and judgement accuracy when evaluating cereals with the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) nutrition facts panel (NFP) and two new proposed NFP based on FDA guidelines.
A between-subjects design randomly assigned participants to three NFP conditions (current NFP label and two modified NFP based on FDA proposals). Participants viewed breakfast cereals, and rated each on nutritional quality and on the likelihood of purchasing and consuming it. Participants provided demographic information and responses to questionnaires assessing nutrition/obesity knowledge, concern for healthy eating and nutrient importance.
Two hundred and thirteen adults who completed an online survey (66·2 % female, mean age 37·31 (sd 12·56) years).
Judged nutrition quality of cereals was positively correlated with protein, fibre and potassium and negatively correlated with sugars and sodium. This pattern appeared when using the current NFP or the modified versions. Highlighted nutrients in modified NFP formats did not affect their perceived importance. Accuracy of the nutrition quality judgements was measured in relationship to an objectively defined nutrition score, NuVal®. Nutrition judgement accuracy was highest under the current NFP (Spearman’s ρ=0·76 for the current NFP; 0·64 and 0·72 for the other formats). Regression analysis showed that nutrition judgement accuracy increased significantly (adjusted R2=0·13) with obesity knowledge (β=0·27), age (β=0·15) and current NFP (β=0·13).
The current NFP is equally or more effective in conveying nutritional information compared with NFP formats based on the FDA proposal.
The effects of thermal treatments on the thermoluminescent (TL) signal of NaCl (ACS reagent) induced by gamma radiation were investigated. Samples of NaCl were thermally treated at 500, 800 and 1000 °C and characterized by X-Ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. After their exposure 0.1 to 150 Gy of gamma radiation from a gamma-ray source of 60Co, a TL curve for each temperature of treatment was obtained. We observed a different TL behavior on the irradiated samples as a function of the temperature applied during the thermal treatments. For the sample treated at 500 °C, three peaks centered at 102, 133 and 228 °C were observed. Samples treated at 800 and 1000 °C showed two main peaks at 128 and 220 °C and 136 and 219 °C, respectively; however, the highest TL intensity signal was observed for the sample at 800 °C. All samples showed a linear dependency of the integrated TL intensity from the signal emitted as function of the irradiation time. This is an important advantage because NaCl could be applied as a very low cost thermoluminescent dosimetric material. A comparison between the TL signal induced by gamma radiation in pure and Eu doped NaCl is also reported.
We elucidate the epistemological futility of using concepts such as unconscious thinking in research. Focusing on Newell & Shanks' (N&S's) use of the lens model as a framework, we clarify issues with regard to unconscious-thought theory (UTT) and self-insight studies. We examine these key points: Brunswikian psychology is absent in UTT; research on self-insight did not emerge to explore the unconscious; the accuracy of judgments does not necessitate the unconscious; and the prescriptive claim of UTT is unfounded.
We introduce a novel method for producing polystyrene (PS)-grafted multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs), which provides a direct route to composites where carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are the major component. Infrared and Raman spectroscopies confirmed that the MWCNTs were functionalized with PS. Thermogravimetric analysis showed that CNTs increase thermal stability of the composite up to a critical loading (∼40 wt%) beyond which high nanotube loadings decrease the polymer degradation temperature, as a consequence of the thermal properties of CNTs and the composite morphology. Even at loadings as high as 80 wt% MWCNTs, the composite is an effective masterbatch material for both solution- and melt-processing. These results show that in situ polymerizations can be flexible and robust techniques for nanocomposite processing, overcoming limitations of conventional processing techniques to produce nanocomposites with very high nanotube loadings, not achieved hitherto.
Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood.
This paper reports the synthesis and characterization of the ZrO2:Co nanosystem, by incorporation of Co nanoparticles (CoNP) into tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia. ZrO2 was synthesized by a sol-gel process, while cobalt nanoparticles were obtained through a colloidal method by chemical reduction of a metal precursor. CoNP were incorporated by two different approaches: during the synthesis of the ZrO2 and by classical impregnation of CoNP on zirconium oxide. The size of Cobalt nanoparticles was controlled through the concentration of reducing agent (NaBH4) and passivanting agent (1-dodecanethiol). According to SEM and TEM analysis, the diameter of the zirconium oxide particles depends on the CoNP concentration added; the particle size for pure zirconia treated at 500°C is 200 nm and 180 nm for ZrO2:Co. X-Ray diffraction showed presence of the tetragonal and monoclinic zirconia, but the abundance of each one depends on the Co nanoparticles and thermally treatment.