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There is lack of Cameroonian adult neuropsychological (NP) norms, limited knowledge concerning HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in Sub-Saharan Africa, and evidence of differential inflammation and disease progression based on viral subtypes. In this study, we developed demographically corrected norms and assessed HIV and viral genotypes effects on attention/working memory (WM), learning, and memory.
We administered two tests of attention/WM [Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test (PASAT)-50, Wechsler Memory Scale (WMS)-III Spatial Span] and two tests of learning and memory [Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT-R), Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised (HVLT-R)] to 347 HIV+ and 395 seronegative adult Cameroonians. We assessed the effects of viral factors on neurocognitive performance.
Compared to controls, people living with HIV (PLWH) had significantly lower T-scores on PASAT-50 and attention/WM summary scores, on HVLT-R total learning and learning summary scores, on HVLT-R delayed recall, BVMT-R delayed recall and memory summary scores. More PLWH had impairment in attention/WM, learning, and memory. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) and current immune status had no effect on T-scores. Compared to untreated cases with detectable viremia, untreated cases with undetectable viremia had significantly lower (worse) T-scores on BVMT-R total learning, BVMT-R delayed recall, and memory composite scores. Compared to PLWH infected with other subtypes (41.83%), those infected with HIV-1 CRF02_AG (58.17%) had higher (better) attention/WM T-scores.
PLWH in Cameroon have impaired attention/WM, learning, and memory and those infected with CRF02_AG viruses showed reduced deficits in attention/WM. The first adult normative standards for assessing attention/WM, learning, and memory described, with equations for computing demographically adjusted T-scores, will facilitate future studies of diseases affecting cognitive function in Cameroonians.
Ba-rich and Si-rich phlogopites occur in the talc-bearing rocks of the La Creuse sulfide ore deposit in Beaujolais, France. They form a group of compositions completely separated from the common Al-rich phlogopites that occur in the surrounding talc-free metasiltites and metarhyolites, with higher Ba and Mg and lower Al contents. The Ba-rich phlogopites have a relatively narrow compositional range (0.24 to 0.80 Ba per formula unit, for 44 valencies) with high and constant Si (5.8 atoms per formula unit, apfu) and Mg + Fe (5.6 apfu), probably buffered by the presence of talc. Compared to low-Al phlogopites from talc-free rocks, the excess charge introduced by the BaK–1 substitution is compensated by interlayer vacancies. Such a high level of interlayer vacancy (0.56 pfu), related to the talc-producing metasomatic conditions, is essential for the stability of this special group of Ba-rich and Si-rich phlogopites.
Single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses were performed. Ba-rich and Si-rich phlogopite is monoclinic, space group C2/m, (R = 5.31%) with a = 5.3185(5), b = 9.2136(9), c = 10.1349(11) Å and β = 100.131(11)°. The occupancies of Mg/Fe and K/Ba were refined exploring different vacancies. The solutions giving the best R factor (4.77%) and goodness-of-fit (1.06) are obtained with 15% < vacancy < 40% at the interlayer site.
Injury is responsible for nearly five million annual deaths worldwide, and nearly 90% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Reliable clinical data detailing the epidemiology of injury are necessary for improved care delivery, but they are lacking in these regions.
A retrospective review of the Service d’Aide Medicale Urgente (SAMU; Kigali, Rwanda) prehospital database for patients with traumatic injury-related conditions from December 2012 through November 2014 was conducted. Chi-squared analysis, binomial probability test, and student’s t-test were used, where appropriate, to describe patient demographics, injury patterns, and temporal and geographic trends of injuries.
In the two-year period, 3,357 patients were managed by SAMU for traumatic injuries. Males were 76.5% of the study population, and the median age of all injured patients was 29 years (IQR=23-35). The most common causes of injury were road traffic crashes (RTCs; 73.4%), stabbings/cuts (11.1%), and falls (9.4%), and the most common anatomic regions injured were the head (55.7%), lower (45.0%) extremities, and upper (27.0%) extremities. Almost one-fourth of injured patients suffered a fracture (24.9%). The most common mechanism of injury for adults was motorcycle-related RTCs (61.4%), whereas children were more commonly injured as pedestrians (59.8%). Centrally located sectors within Kigali represented common areas for RTCs.
These data support the call for focused injury prevention strategies, some of which already are underway in Rwanda. Further research on care processes and clinical outcomes for injured patients may help identify avenues for improved care delivery.
EnumahS, ScottJW, MaineR, UwitonzeE, NyinawankusiJD, RivielloR, ByiringiroJC, KabagemaI, JayaramanS. Rwanda’s Model Prehospital Emergency Care Service: A Two-year Review of Patient Demographics and Injury Patterns in Kigali. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):614–620.
We sought to conduct a major objective of the CAEP Academic Section, an environmental scan of the academic emergency medicine programs across the 17 Canadian medical schools.
We developed an 84-question questionnaire, which was distributed to academic heads. The responses were validated by phone by the lead author to ensure that the questions were answered completely and consistently. Details of pediatric emergency medicine units were excluded from the scan.
At eight of 17 universities, emergency medicine has full departmental status and at two it has no official academic status. Canadian academic emergency medicine is practiced at 46 major teaching hospitals and 13 specialized pediatric hospitals. Another 69 Canadian hospital EDs regularly take clinical clerks and emergency medicine residents. There are 31 full professors of emergency medicine in Canada. Teaching programs are strong with clerkships offered at 16/17 universities, CCFP(EM) programs at 17/17, and RCPSC residency programs at 14/17. Fourteen sites have at least one physician with a Master’s degree in education. There are 55 clinical researchers with salary support at 13 universities. Sixteen sites have published peer-reviewed papers in the past five years, ranging from four to 235 per site. Annual budgets range from $200,000 to $5,900,000.
This comprehensive review of academic activities in emergency medicine across Canada identifies areas of strengths as well as opportunities for improvement. CAEP and the Academic Section hope we can ultimately improve ED patient care by sharing best academic practices and becoming better teachers, educators, and researchers.
Body-focused repetitive behaviours (BFRBs) including trichotillomania, skin picking, and nail biting, are non-functional self-destructive habits, which have a severe negative impact on everyday functioning. Although BFRBs cause distress, they are maintained by both negative (relief) and positive (stimulation) reinforcement. The emotional regulation (ER) model proposes that people with BFRBs have a general deficit in ER and, as a consequence, engage in BFRBs to alleviate affect and reinforce the behaviour. The current study was designed to explore differences in ER between people with BFRBs and controls to identify specific emotions triggering BFRBs. Forty-eight participants (24 BFRB, 24 controls) completed questionnaires measuring Difficulties in Emotional Regulation (DERS), a Triggers Scale and an Affective Regulation Scale (ARS). Significant differences in people with BFRBs and controls were reported principally on the DERS subscales of lack of emotional clarity, difficulties in impulse control, and access to ER strategies. On the ARS, the BFRB group reported overall difficulty ‘snapping out’ of emotions. The majority of BFRBs were reported to be triggered by anxiety (78%), tension (70%), or boredom (52%). The clinical implication is that ER could be beneficially targeted in therapy for BFRBs.
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have revealed association of a locus approximately 25b downstream of the TMEM18 gene with body mass and obesity. We utilized targeted re-sequencing of the body mass associated locus in proximity of TMEM18 in a case-control population of severely obese children and adolescents from the Stockholm area. We expanded our study to include the TMEM18 gene itself, with the aim of identifying body mass associated genetic variants. Sequencing was performed on the SOLiD platform, on long-range PCR fragments generated through targeted amplification of the regions of interest. Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were validated by TaqMan genotyping. We were able to observe 131 SNPs across the re-sequenced regions. Chi squared tests comparing the allele frequencies between cases and controls revealed 57 SNPs as candidates for association with obesity. Validation and replication genotyping revealed robust associations for SNPs within the haplotype block region located downstream from the TMEM18 gene. This study provides a high resolution map of the genetic variation pattern in the TMEM18 gene, as well as the associated haplotype block, and further strengthens the association of variants within the proximal haplotype block with obesity and body mass.
Thyroid hormones (THs) have been shown to improve in vitro embryo production in cattle by increasing blastocyst formation rate, and the average cell number of blastocysts and by significantly decreasing apoptosis rate. To better understand those genetic aspects that may underlie enhanced early embryo development in the presence of THs, we characterized the bovine embryonic transcriptome at the blastocyst stage, and examined differential gene expression profiles using a bovine-specific microarray. We found that 1212 genes were differentially expressed in TH-treated embryos when compared with non-treated controls (>1.5-fold at P < 0.05). In addition 23 and eight genes were expressed uniquely in control and treated embryos, respectively. The expression of genes specifically associated with metabolism, mitochondrial function, cell differentiation and development were elevated. However, TH-related genes, including those encoding TH receptors and deiodinases, were not differentially expressed in treated embryos. Furthermore, the over-expression of 52 X-chromosome linked genes in treated embryos suggested a delay or escape from X-inactivation. This study highlights the significant impact of THs on differential gene expression in the early embryo; the identification of TH-responsive genes provides an insight into those regulatory pathways activated during development.
Vitamin D and folate are associated with decreased colorectal cancer risk and their association with colorectal cancer prognosis is under investigation. We assessed the levels of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25(OH)D3), folate and vitamin B12 in an international pilot study in order to determine variability of these biomarkers based on geographical location. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations were measured in 149 invasive, newly diagnosed colorectal cancer cases from Heidelberg (Germany), Seattle (WA, USA), and Tampa (FL, USA) and in ninety-one age- and sex-matched controls. Their associations with potential predictors were assessed using multivariate linear regression analyses. Plasma 25(OH)D3, folate and vitamin B12 concentrations differed by location. Other predictors were season for 25(OH)D3 and tumour stage (vitamin B12). Season-corrected average 25(OH)D3 concentrations were higher in Heidelberg (31·7 ng/ml; range 11·0–83·0 ng/ml) than in Seattle (23·3 ng/ml; range 4·0–80·0 ng/ml) and Tampa (21·1 ng/ml; range 4·6–51·6 ng/ml). In Heidelberg, a strong seasonal variation was observed. Folate (11·1 ng/ml) and vitamin B12 (395 pg/ml) concentrations in Heidelberg were lower than those in Seattle (25·3 ng/ml and 740 pg/ml, respectively) and Tampa (23·8 ng/ml and 522 pg/ml, respectively). Differences in plasma 25(OH)D3 and folate concentrations between Heidelberg and the US sites were observed, probably reflecting variation in outdoor activities and sun-avoidance behaviour during summer as well as in folic acid fortification and supplement use. Intra-site differences at each study location were greater than between-location variability, suggesting that individual health behaviours play a significant role. Nevertheless, the intra-site differences we observed may be due to chance because of the limited sample size. Our pilot study illustrates the value of an international cohort in studying colorectal cancer prognosis to discern geographical differences in a broad range of exposures.
The Inuit population is often described as being protected against CVD due to their traditional dietary patterns and their unique genetic background. The objective of the present study was to examine gene–diet interaction effects on plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population. Data from the Qanuippitaa Nunavik Health Survey (n 553) were analysed via regression models which included the following: genotypes for thirty-five known polymorphisms (SNP) from twenty genes related to lipid metabolism; dietary fat intake including total fat (TotFat) and saturated fat (SatFat) estimated from a FFQ; plasma lipid levels, namely total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) and TAG. The results demonstrate that allele frequencies were different in the Inuit population compared with the Caucasian population. Further, seven SNP (APOA1 − 75G/A (rs670), APOB XbAI (rs693), AGT M235T (rs699), LIPC 480C/T (rs1800588), APOA1 84T/C (rs5070), PPARG2 − 618C/G (rs10865710) and APOE 219G/T (rs405509)) in interaction with TotFat and SatFat were significantly associated with one or two plasma lipid parameters. Another four SNP (APOC3 3238C>G (rs5128), CETP I405V (rs5882), CYP1A1 A4889G (rs1048943) and ABCA1 Arg219Lys (rs2230806)) in interaction with either TotFat or SatFat intake were significantly associated with one plasma lipid variable. Further, an additive effect of these SNP in interaction with TotFat or SatFat intake was significantly associated with higher TC, LDL-C or TAG levels, as well as with lower HDL-C levels. In conclusion, the present study supports the notion that gene–diet interactions play an important role in modifying plasma lipid levels in the Inuit population.
Objective: Hematopoietic syndrome (HS) is a clinical diagnosis assigned to people who present with ≥1 new-onset cytopenias in the setting of acute radiation exposure. The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to evaluate the evidence and develop recommendations for medical countermeasures for the management of HS in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 individuals exposed to radiation. The objective of this consultancy was to develop recommendations for treatment of the HS based upon the quality of evidence.
Methods: English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to panel members before the meeting and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of individuals with HS, published randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made. No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with radiation-associated HS. The use of GRADE analysis of countermeasures for injury to hematopoietic tissue was restricted by the lack of comparator groups in humans. Reliance on data generated in nonirradiated humans and experimental animals was necessary.
Results: Based upon GRADE analysis and narrative review, a strong recommendation was made for the administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor or granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor and a weak recommendation was made for the use of erythropoiesis-stimulating agents or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.
Conclusions: Assessment of therapeutic interventions for HS in humans exposed to nontherapeutic radiation is difficult because of the limits of the evidence.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:202-212)
Objectives: The World Health Organization convened a panel of experts to rank the evidence for medical countermeasures for management of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) in a hypothetical scenario involving the hospitalization of 100 to 200 victims. The goal of this panel was to achieve consensus on optimal management of ARS affecting nonhematopoietic organ systems based upon evidence in the published literature.
Methods: English-language articles were identified in MEDLINE and PubMed. Reference lists of retrieved articles were distributed to conferees in advance of and updated during the meeting. Published case series and case reports of ARS, publications of randomized controlled trials of relevant interventions used to treat nonirradiated individuals, reports of studies in irradiated animals, and prior recommendations of subject matter experts were selected. Studies were extracted using the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation system. In cases in which data were limited or incomplete, a narrative review of the observations was made.
Results: No randomized controlled trials of medical countermeasures have been completed for individuals with ARS. Reports of countermeasures were often incompletely described, making it necessary to rely on data generated in nonirradiated humans and in experimental animals. A strong recommendation is made for the administration of a serotonin-receptor antagonist prophylactically when the suspected exposure is >2 Gy and topical steroids, antibiotics, and antihistamines for radiation burns, ulcers, or blisters; excision and grafting of radiation ulcers or necrosis with intractable pain; provision of supportive care to individuals with neurovascular syndrome; and administration of electrolyte replacement therapy and sedatives to individuals with significant burns, hypovolemia, and/or shock. A strong recommendation is made against the use of systemic steroids in the absence of a specific indication. A weak recommendation is made for the use of fluoroquinolones, bowel decontamination, loperamide, and enteral nutrition, and for selective oropharyngeal/digestive decontamination, blood glucose maintenance, and stress ulcer prophylaxis in critically ill patients.
Conclusions: High-quality studies of therapeutic interventions in humans exposed to nontherapeutic radiation are not available, and because of ethical concerns regarding the conduct of controlled studies in humans, such studies are unlikely to emerge in the near future.
(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2011;5:183–201)
This chapter reviews the relevant studies with human and animal cells aimed at the development of artificial gametes. During female gametogenesis (oogenesis), oogonia start the first meiotic division in the fetal period of life, but the process becomes arrested at a late prophase until puberty. Unlike oogenesis, male gametogenesis (spermatogenesis) is a continuous process in which spermatogonia enter meiosis and form primary spermatocytes. The chapter outlines the main methodological problems in artificial female and male gamete production, and suggests possible ways of their solution. As compared with mature oocytes, the use of germinal vesicle oocytes for somatic cell nucleus haploidization represents an even greater challenge because two steps of reduction are necessary. Experiments with the embryonic stem (ES) cells can help understand the mechanisms guiding the differentiation of stem cells towards the germline and thus prepare the route for the work with the adult stem (AS) cells.
The model developed by Forbes (1987) of how body fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM) change during periods of weight loss or gain (Δ body weight (BW)) assumed that they change in relationship to a constant C = 10·4, where ΔFFM/ΔBW = 10·4/(10·4+FM). Forbes derived C based on aggregated, cross-sectional data from a small sample of women. The objective of the present study was to reanalyse the relationship described by Forbes and to explore whether this relationship is consistent across ethnicity and sex groups using cross-sectional data from a large sample of white and African-American men and women. Baseline data from white and African-American men and women aged 18–60 years, who participated in a clinical study at the Pennington Biomedical Research Center since 2001 and who underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans, were available for analysis. To overcome differences in BMI distributions among the ethnicity-by-sex groups, a stratified random sample of participants was selected within each group such that numbers in each BMI category ( < 25, 25–29·9, 30–34·9, 35–39·9, 40+ kg/m2) were proportional to those within the group with the smallest sample size, yielding a sample of 1953 individuals. Linear regression models assessed the FM–FFM relationship across the four ethnicity-by-sex groups. The FM–FFM relationship varied little by ethnicity (P = 0·57) or by sex (P = 0·26). The constant describing the FM–FFM relationship was estimated to be 9·7 (95 % CI 9·0, 10·3). In conclusion, results from our large, biethnic sample of men and women found a FM–FFM relationship very close to that originally described by Forbes, absent of significant variability by ethnicity or sex.