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Healthy eating recommendations advise eating two portions of fish per week. Although seafood consumption has doubled globally over the last 50 years there is currently very little data on seafood consumption in Ireland. It is important to know what is being consumed by a population for nutritional and food safety purposes. The aim of this study is to collect reported dietary intake data from Irish seafood consumers, using an online dietary intake assessment tool, to determine habitual intakes of seafood for use in risk assessment.
Materials and Methods
Foodbook24 is a self-administered, online 24hr recall tool developed for the purpose of nutritional surveillance in Ireland. For the purpose of this study it was further developed to include a detailed list of seafood regularly consumed in Ireland. Foods were selected using established food databases (Langual, FoodEx2 and BIM Seafood Handbook). Food composition was determined using McCance and Widdowson (7th Ed.) and portion sizes were based on NANS, published portion size books and recipes. Participants will be recruited using commonly used approaches; radio adverts & face-to-face recruitment. Seafood consumers (n = 1000), balanced for gender, age and urban/rural location, will be targeted. Participants will complete 2×24hr recalls, over 2 weeks, and complete an accompanying food frequency questionnaire. Demographic and lifestyle data will also be collected.
In the development of the tool, a total of 246 foods were added to Foodbook24, including 38 species of fish, with approximately 2–25 fish dishes for each fish. The composition of 156 foods were a direct match to McCance and Widdowson, 36 were similar and 24 used a combination of foods. For fish meals and recipes, 17 meals had a direct match in McCance and Widdowson and 10 were obtained using the average of 3 recipes. Foodbook24 contained a large proportion (92%) of the relevant portion sizes, others came from relevant books and recipes.
Data collection is currently ongoing, but it is expected that the study will represent a significant step forward in public health policy contribution by characterising the likelihood of illness within a population on an annual basis. Furthermore, it will demonstrate the use of novel intake assessment technologies for fast and cost-effective collection of data for risk assessment purposes, reducing the time and cost required for data collection.
Little is known about the factors which influence seafood consumption in Irish adults at present. This systematic review will serve the purpose of reviewing published literature examining influences on seafood consumption to provide a basis for a larger project being carried out in UCD - the Seafood Consumption and Risk Exposure Study (SCaRES) - examination of seafood consumption in the Irish population. This project aims to generate food consumption data, on seafood, consumers to improve the characterisation of the risk from exposure to biotoxins and other contaminants from consuming shellfish. This approach will represent a significant step forward in terms of public health policy contribution by being able to characterise the likelihood of illness in a population or population sub-group on an annual basis.
Materials and Methods:
Data sources PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for articles published between January 2008 and January 2018 investigating the characteristics of seafood consumers. Search terms include the following: factors OR influences OR determinants OR indicators AND fish OR seafood OR shellfish OR marine products AND diet OR dietary intake OR intake OR consumption. Articles, in English which investigated factors influencing seafood/fish consumption in adults (18 + ) were included.
A total of 3964 unique articles were found, after duplicates (n = 1537) were removed. Following this, a further 3531 articles were excluded based on title and abstract. The remaining articles (n = 433) were screened based on inclusion criteria. After the initial systematic search, 149 papers met the inclusion criteria. Preliminary analysis to date demonstrated the following; seafood consumers are more likely to have higher educational attainment (n = 43 article), they are more likely to be of older age (n = 29 articles), 21 articles reported that they are less likely to be smokers, whilst n = 17, found that they are more likely to be physically active, with n = 20 reporting they are more likely to have a healthier overall diet and n = 14 reporting that they are more likely to have a higher household income. Results were mixed with respect to BMI.
The included studies have found that seafood consumers are more likely to have higher educational attainment, be of older age, have lower tobacco use, be physically active, have a higher fruit and vegetable intake and have a higher household income. Full analysis is ongoing.
It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.
The mean air temperature of the Icelandic interior is below 10 °C. However, we have previously observed 16S rDNA sequences associated with thermophilic lineages in Icelandic basalts. Measurements of the temperatures of igneous rocks in Iceland showed that solar insolation of these low albedo substrates achieved a peak surface temperature of 44.5 °C. We isolated seven thermophilic Geobacillus species from basalt with optimal growth temperatures of ~65 °C. The minimum growth temperature of these organisms was ~36 °C, suggesting that they could be active in the rock environment. Basalt dissolution rates at 40 °C were increased in the presence of one of the isolates compared to abiotic controls, showing its potential to be involved in active biogeochemistry at environmental temperatures. These data raise the possibility of transient active thermophilic growth in macroclimatically cold rocky environments, implying that the biogeographical distribution of active thermophiles might be greater than previously understood. These data show that temperatures measured or predicted over large scales on a planet are not in themselves adequate to assess niches available to extremophiles at micron scales.
The present study examined the associations between adult food insecurity (FI) and percentage body fat (%BF) and BMI, stratified by height (HT).
Design, setting and subjects
%BF, HT and BMI of 2117 men and 1909 women in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2002 were analysed in relation to adult food security status using multiple regression procedures.
Compared with the fully food-secure, men’s %BF, BMI and HT were lower as FI intensified. Marginal food security among women was associated with 1·3 cm shorter HT, P = 0·016. Marginal food security among women who were below median HT was associated with about 2·0 kg/m2 higher BMI, P = 0·042. %BF was not associated with FI among women.
FI is associated with shorter HT and lower %BF and BMI in men. Women’s HT should be considered in the reported associations between FI and higher BMI.