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The present paper describes the systematic development of an FFQ to assess the intake of fatty acids and antioxidants in school-aged children. In addition, a validation study applying 24 h dietary recalls was performed.
Using the variance-based Max_r method, a list of eighty-two foods was compiled from data obtained by 3 d weighed dietary records. The foods were used to design an FFQ, the comprehensibility of which was evaluated in a feasibility study. In addition, the FFQ was validated in a subset of 101 children from the German Infant Nutritional Intervention Study (GINI PLUS) against one 24 h dietary recall.
The feasibility study attested a good acceptance of the FFQ. Mean intake of foods compared well between the FFQ and the 24 h dietary recall, although intake data generated from the FFQ tended to be higher. This difference became less apparent at the nutrient level, although the estimated average consumption of arachidonic acid and EPA using the FFQ still exceeded values recorded with the 24 h recall method by 45 % and 29 %, respectively.
On the basis of the systematic selection process of the food list, the established practicability of the FFQ and the overall plausibility of the results, the use of this FFQ is justified in future epidemiological studies.
To identify associations between dietary glycaemic index (GI) and weight, body mass index and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) – waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), lipoprotein fractions, triacylglycerols (TAG) and blood pressure (BP) – in an older British population.
Cross-sectional dietary, anthropometric and biochemical data from the National Diet and Nutritional Survey for adults aged over 65 years were reanalysed using a hierarchical regression model. Associations between body weight, CVD risk factors, and dietary factors including GI and fibre intakes were explored among 1152 healthy older people living in the UK between 1994 and 1995.
In the unadjusted model, GI was significantly and directly associated with TAG (β = 0.008 ± 0.003) and diastolic BP (β = 0.325 ± 0.164) in males. These relationships were attenuated and non-significant after adjustment for potential confounding factors. WHR (β = 0.003 ± 0.001) and TAG (β = 0.005 ± 0.002) were significantly predicted by GI in males and females combined. The association with WHR was attenuated by adjustment for sex, age, region and social class; the relationship with TAG was non-significant after adjustment for other potential dietary confounders.
After controlling for potential confounders, no clear links were detected between GI and body weight or other CVD risk factors. This study provides little evidence for advising the consumption of a low-GI diet in the elderly to prevent weight gain or improve other CVD risk factors.
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