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To evaluate whether a multipronged pilot intervention promoting healthier beverage consumption improved at-home beverage consumption and weight status among young children.
In this exploratory pilot study, we randomly assigned four childcare centres to a control (delayed-intervention) condition or a 12-week intervention that promoted consumption of healthier beverages (water, unsweetened low- or non-fat milk) and discouraged consumption of less-healthy beverages (juice, sugar-sweetened beverages, high-fat or sweetened milk). The multipronged intervention was delivered via childcare centres; simultaneously targeted children, parents and childcare staff; and included environmental changes, policies and education. Outcomes were measured at baseline and immediately post-intervention and included children’s (n 154) at-home beverage consumption (assessed via parental report) and overweight/obese status (assessed via objectively measured height and weight). We estimated intervention impact using difference-in-differences models controlling for children’s demographics and classroom.
Two northern California cities, USA, 2013–2014.
Children aged 2–5 years and their parents.
Relative to control group children, intervention group children reduced their consumption of less-healthy beverages from baseline to follow-up by 5·9 ounces/d (95 % CI −11·2, −0·6) (–174·5 ml/d; 95 % CI –331·2, –17·7) and increased their consumption of healthier beverages by 3·5 ounces/d (95 % CI −2·6, 9·5) (103·5 ml/d; 95 % CI –76·9, 280·9). Children’s likelihood of being overweight decreased by 3 percentage points (pp) in the intervention group and increased by 3 pp in the control group (difference-in-differences: −6 pp; 95 % CI −15, 3).
Our exploratory pilot study suggests that interventions focused comprehensively on encouraging healthier beverage consumption could improve children’s beverage intake and weight. Findings should be confirmed in longer, larger studies.
Wales has ambitious health, wealth, and innovation policies and a clear goal to use the economic muscle of the Welsh National Health Service (NHS) to support its strong life sciences sector. Health Technology Wales (HTW) has a clear remit to appraise technologies over the span of their lifecycle from innovation to obsolescence. HTW is collaborating with the Bevan Commission through their national Health Technology Exemplars (HTEs), which partners NHS and industry stakeholders to strengthen innovation within the Welsh health system.
Health technology assessment (HTA) methods were used to produce topic exploration reports for assessing the evidence underpinning applicant innovations. A “Dragons’ Den” expert panel was convened to select the successful HTEs.
Fourteen Bevan HTEs were awarded funds, which were matched by industry partners. Application of HTA methods resulted in more critical consideration of technology value propositions, including: developing pull models of innovation focused on delivering health technology solutions for current problems facing NHS Wales; supporting early dialogue between the NHS and industry partners around demonstrating evidence of improved patient outcomes; and focusing on transformative rather than incremental innovation. The most promising innovations will progress to rapid HTA, where the evidence generated will be used to develop guidance for NHS Wales.
HTA methods were productively deployed at the innovation phase of the technology lifecycle to support evidence-informed allocation of scarce innovation resources. In this way, HTW is working with key stakeholders to identify and offer early support to the most promising innovations, with the aim of expediting their adoption and realizing health benefits for patients as quickly as possible. The Bevan Commission has partnered with HTW to routinely build in HTA and evidence considerations in its future innovation calls and competitions. Thus, HTW has established a “feeder” pipeline for assessing bottom-up service-led innovations and encouraging evidence consideration throughout the lifecycle of innovative technologies.
SNP in the vitamin D receptor (VDR) gene is associated with risk of lower respiratory infections. The influence of genetic variation in the vitamin D pathway resulting in susceptibility to upper respiratory infections (URI) has not been investigated. We evaluated the influence of thirty-three SNP in eleven vitamin D pathway genes (DBP, DHCR7, RXRA, CYP2R1, CYP27B1, CYP24A1, CYP3A4, CYP27A1, LRP2, CUBN and VDR) resulting in URI risk in 725 adults in London, UK, using an additive model with adjustment for potential confounders and correction for multiple comparisons. Significant associations in this cohort were investigated in a validation cohort of 737 children in Manchester, UK. In all, three SNP in VDR (rs4334089, rs11568820 and rs7970314) and one SNP in CYP3A4 (rs2740574) were associated with risk of URI in the discovery cohort after adjusting for potential confounders and correcting for multiple comparisons (adjusted incidence rate ratio per additional minor allele ≥1·15, Pfor trend ≤0·030). This association was replicated for rs4334089 in the validation cohort (Pfor trend=0·048) but not for rs11568820, rs7970314 or rs2740574. Carriage of the minor allele of the rs4334089 SNP in VDR was associated with increased susceptibility to URI in children and adult cohorts in the United Kingdom.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) are widely available and are associated with acute psychosis. Our recent study indicated that SC using psychiatric inpatients admitted in 2014 had more psychotic symptoms, aggression, and agitation compared with cannabis [marijuana (MJ)] using patients. The current study will review more charts and will characterize the demographics and presentations of current SC Versus MJ using patients. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: A chart review was conducted of patients admitted to a New York City inpatient dual diagnosis psychiatric unit from 2014 to 2016. Inclusion criteria were self-reported current SC use or MJ use, or urine toxicology (+) for MJ. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: In total, 585 charts met inclusion criteria, 168 reported current SC use (40 f, 128 m SC users; 122 f, 295 m MJ users). SC using patients were younger (p=0.050), more likely to be Black (p=0.003), and homeless or living in a shelter (p=0.001). SC users were also more likely to be agitated (OR: 2.26) and aggressive (OR: 2.04) and have psychotic symptoms (OR: 3.03) compared with MJ users. SC users received more PRN medication (p<0.001) and had longer lengths of stay (p=0.001). DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results demonstrate that current SC users had a different demographic profile compared with current MJ users. Our results also support our previous findings: SC using patients were more likely to be agitated and aggressive and were more likely to demonstrate positive psychotic symptoms.
The study is aimed to better understand how post-acute-care services help persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families following acute-care discharge. Participants included 21 primary family caregivers of persons with ABI. Participants reported their level of satisfaction with 14 different post-acute-care ABI services following discharge from an acute-care ABI facility in a large south-western city in the United States. Participants completed a survey following the discharge (on average 8.1 months) of their family member from acute-care services. Surveys included both quantitative and open-ended questions. The present study focused on participant satisfaction ratings and perceptions of helpfulness among the 14 different service areas. The average satisfaction rating across the 14 service areas was 73.4%. Professional consultation and assessment (81.8%) received the highest satisfaction rating, followed by therapy and intervention (77.9%), and peer support (51.9%). Open-ended question responses on the helpfulness of post-acute-care services focused on (a) therapy and intervention and (b) professional consultation and assessment. Study findings highlight the need to track the use of ABI services from the acute-phase through long-term community adjustment. Findings also underscore the importance of targeting interventions and services specific to the post-acute phase of ABI rehabilitation.
Ensuring ready access to free drinking-water in schools is an important strategy for prevention of obesity and dental caries, and for improving student learning. Yet to date, there are no validated instruments to examine water access in schools. The present study aimed to develop and validate a survey of school administrators to examine school access to beverages, including water and sports drinks, and school and district-level water-related policies and practices.
Survey validity was measured by comparing results of telephone surveys of school administrators with on-site observations of beverage access and reviews of school policy documents for any references to beverages. The semi-structured telephone survey included items about free drinking-water access (sixty-four items), commonly available competitive beverages (twenty-nine items) and water-related policies and practices (twenty-eight items). Agreement between administrator surveys and observation/document review was calculated using kappa statistics for categorical variables, and Pearson correlation coefficients and t tests for continuous variables.
Public schools in the San Francisco Bay Area, California, USA.
School administrators (n 24).
Eighty-one per cent of questions related to school beverage access yielded κ values indicating substantial or almost perfect agreement (κ>0·60). However, only one of twenty-eight questions related to drinking-water practices and policies yielded a κ value representing substantial or almost perfect agreement.
This school administrator survey appears reasonably valid for questions related to beverage access, but less valid for questions on water-related practices and policies. This tool provides policy makers, researchers and advocates with a low-cost, efficient method to gather national data on school-level beverage access.
In this paper, we describe the development of an International Space Station experiment, BioRock. The purpose of this experiment is to investigate biofilm formation and microbe–mineral interactions in space. The latter research has application in areas as diverse as regolith amelioration and extraterrestrial mining. We describe the design of a prototype biomining reactor for use in space experimentation and investigations on in situ Resource Use and we describe the results of pre-flight tests.
The study aimed to understand the use and barriers to use of post-acute-care services by persons with acquired brain injury (ABI). A total of 21 primary family caregivers of persons recently discharged from an ABI acute-care facility in a large southwestern city in the United States participated. Service use in 14 domains appeared consistent with post-discharge needs. In five service areas, participants were not aware the service was available. Professionals in acute ABI rehabilitation units need to be fully aware of the range of available potential supports and diligent in informing injured persons and their families about available post-discharge services.
The subsurface exploration of other planetary bodies can be used to unravel their geological history and assess their habitability. On Mars in particular, present-day habitable conditions may be restricted to the subsurface. Using a deep subsurface mine, we carried out a program of extraterrestrial analog research – MINe Analog Research (MINAR). MINAR aims to carry out the scientific study of the deep subsurface and test instrumentation designed for planetary surface exploration by investigating deep subsurface geology, whilst establishing the potential this technology has to be transferred into the mining industry. An integrated multi-instrument suite was used to investigate samples of representative evaporite minerals from a subsurface Permian evaporite sequence, in particular to assess mineral and elemental variations which provide small-scale regions of enhanced habitability. The instruments used were the Panoramic Camera emulator, Close-Up Imager, Raman spectrometer, Small Planetary Linear Impulse Tool, Ultrasonic drill and handheld X-ray diffraction (XRD). We present science results from the analog research and show that these instruments can be used to investigate in situ the geological context and mineralogical variations of a deep subsurface environment, and thus habitability, from millimetre to metre scales. We also show that these instruments are complementary. For example, the identification of primary evaporite minerals such as NaCl and KCl, which are difficult to detect by portable Raman spectrometers, can be accomplished with XRD. By contrast, Raman is highly effective at locating and detecting mineral inclusions in primary evaporite minerals. MINAR demonstrates the effective use of a deep subsurface environment for planetary instrument development, understanding the habitability of extreme deep subsurface environments on Earth and other planetary bodies, and advancing the use of space technology in economic mining.
The use of underground geological repositories, such as in radioactive waste disposal (RWD) and in carbon capture (widely known as Carbon Capture and Storage; CCS), constitutes a key environmental priority for the 21st century. Based on the identification of key scientific questions relating to the geophysics, geochemistry and geobiology of geodisposal of wastes, this paper describes the possibility of technology transfer from high-technology areas of the space exploration sector, including astrobiology, planetary sciences, astronomy, and also particle and nuclear physics, into geodisposal. Synergies exist between high technology used in the space sector and in the characterization of underground environments such as repositories, because of common objectives with respect to instrument miniaturization, low power requirements, durability under extreme conditions (in temperature and mechanical loads) and operation in remote or otherwise difficult to access environments.
It is unclear if children of different weight status differ in their nutritional habits while watching television. The objective of the present paper was to determine if children who are overweight or obese differ in their frequency of consumption of six food items while watching television compared with their normal-weight counterparts. A cross-sectional study of 550 children (57·1 % female; mean age = 10 years) from Ottawa, Canada was conducted. Children's weight status was categorised using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention cut-points. Questionnaires were used to determine the number of hours of television watching per day and the frequency of consumption of six types of foods while watching television. Overweight/obese children watched more television per day than normal-weight children (3·3 v. 2·7 h, respectively; P = 0·001). Obese children consumed fast food and fruits/vegetables more frequently while watching television than normal-weight or overweight children (P < 0·05). Children who watched more than 4 h of television per d had higher odds (OR 3·21; 95% CI 1·14, 9·03; P = 0·03) of being obese, independent of several covariates, but not independent of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. The finding that both television watching and the frequency of consumption of some food items during television watching are higher in children who are obese is concerning. While the nature of the present study does not allow for the determination of causal pathways, future research should investigate these weight-status differences to identify potential areas of intervention.
For endozoochorous seed dispersal systems, the extant dung beetle assemblage at seed deposition sites may influence site suitability as burial activity may change the probability that seeds germinate and seedlings establish. This study tested if the different conditions of the two main seed-deposition habitats of a western lowland gorilla population of south-east Cameroon (sleeping sites and old secondary forest) influenced dung beetle assemblages and consequently the seed relocation patterns. In March 2012, in both habitats, burial patterns (proportion and depth) were described in eight stations based on two 300-g experimental faeces with known number of Uapaca spp. seeds (N = 75) left for 48 h, and beetle assemblages were described based on one 48h-dung-baited pitfall trapping session in five of these stations. To assess the impact of burial pattern on seedling emergence, Uapaca seedling emergence trials were performed in a nursery (75 seeds per depth treatment). Assemblage at sleeping sites had a higher species richness (non-significant) and was significantly more abundant than in old secondary forests. Conversely, significantly more seeds were buried in old secondary forests than sleeping sites and at significantly greater depths (mean: 14.9 cm vs. 8.7 cm). As trials suggested that burial depth ≥7 cm prevented Uapaca seedling emergence, dung beetles are assumed to induce seed loss more strongly in old secondary forests than sleeping sites (20.5% vs. 6.7% of initial seed crop). The demonstration that dung beetles may exert a negative influence on seed fate overall, and that the degree to which this occurs may vary depending on habitat, highlights the complexity in determining the suitability of deposition sites for recruitment.
The mean air temperature of the Icelandic interior is below 10 °C. However, we have previously observed 16S rDNA sequences associated with thermophilic lineages in Icelandic basalts. Measurements of the temperatures of igneous rocks in Iceland showed that solar insolation of these low albedo substrates achieved a peak surface temperature of 44.5 °C. We isolated seven thermophilic Geobacillus species from basalt with optimal growth temperatures of ~65 °C. The minimum growth temperature of these organisms was ~36 °C, suggesting that they could be active in the rock environment. Basalt dissolution rates at 40 °C were increased in the presence of one of the isolates compared to abiotic controls, showing its potential to be involved in active biogeochemistry at environmental temperatures. These data raise the possibility of transient active thermophilic growth in macroclimatically cold rocky environments, implying that the biogeographical distribution of active thermophiles might be greater than previously understood. These data show that temperatures measured or predicted over large scales on a planet are not in themselves adequate to assess niches available to extremophiles at micron scales.
In this chapter we continue the conversation begun in Chapter 6, on critical diversity in education, curriculum and equity, along with a broader discussion of social justice and the curriculum. Within the sociology of education there is a long history of interest in questions about whose knowledge is valued in the curriculum, and whose is excluded. These kinds of questions have been asked in relation to social divisions of class, race and gender.
To some extent, education policy makers and politicians are aware of the issue of social equity in relation to curriculum. A cursory read through the Melbourne Declaration on Educational Goals for YoungAustralians, or the new Australian Curriculum, reveals the importance of the use of social categories for the discussion and delivery of curriculum. The Australian Curriculum identifies students from low socioeconomic backgrounds, Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples, students from non-English speaking backgrounds and students with physical and intellectual disabilities as key equity groups that need to be targetted and better catered for in education in Australia.
It is interesting to note, however, that recent Australian policy documents do not appear to be concerned with the issue of gender, the categories of girl/boy, in relation to curriculum and social disadvantage. This is despite a rich history of research spanning the past 30 years or so into gender and curriculum. This chapter explores why gender has come off the list of curriculum concerns, what this tells us about how gender is understood in relation to curriculum and the possible implications of this. Education has long been involved in the continuing construction of a binary framework in which there are two genders, ‘male’ and ‘female’, understood as complementary opposites. In this chapter we would like to acknowledge the harm involved in the construction of gender according to this binary framework.
Pesticide applications have a strong impact on biodiversity in agroecosystems. The present study aimed to assess the impact of pest control strategies on the arthropodofauna of Parus major nests built within nestboxes installed in orchards. Unlike many studied groups, these arthropod communities are not in direct contact with pesticide sprays (on account of their being sheltered by nestboxes) and are also unable to move away from the treated area. In this pilot study, we estimated the prevalence and the taxonomic and ecological diversities of arthropodofauna sampled in the nests and assessed the extent to which the whole and nest-specific arthropodofauna were affected by pest control strategies. Sixteen different insect and arachnid Primary Taxonomic Groups (PTGs, order level or below) were found in nests. The best represented PTGs (⩾10% occurrence in years 2007 and 2008) were Psocoptera (Insecta, detritivorous/saprophagous), detritivorous/saprophagous Astigmata (Acari) and hematophagous Mesostigmata (Acari). Pest control strategies had a large impact on the prevalence of arthropods in nests, with higher proportions of nests hosting arthropods in organic orchards than in conventional orchards and with intermediate proportions in nests in Integrated Pest Management orchards. In contrast, pest control strategies had no significant effect on the composition of the arthropod communities when only nests hosting nidicolous arthropods were considered.