The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of a protein-free diet in the induction of food allergy and oral tolerance in BALB/c mice. The experimental model used was mice that were fed, since weaning up to adulthood, a balanced diet in which all dietary proteins were replaced by amino acid diet (Aa). The absence of dietary proteins did not prevent the development of food allergy to ovalbumin (OVA) in these mice. However, Aa-fed mice produced lower levels of IgE, secretory IgA and cytokines. In addition, when compared with mice from control group, Aa-fed mice had a milder aversive reaction to the allergen measured by consumption of OVA-containing solution and weight loss during food allergy development. In addition, mice that did not have dietary proteins in their diets were less susceptible to induction of oral tolerance. One single oral administration was not enough to suppress specific serum Ig and IgG1 levels in the Aa-fed group, although it was efficient to induce suppression in the control group. The present results indicate that the stimulation by dietary proteins alters both inflammatory reactivity and regulatory immune reactivity in mice probably due to their effect in the maturation of the immune system.