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Induced abortion is an indicator of access to, and quality of reproductive healthcare, but rates are relatively unknown in women with schizophrenia.
We examined whether women with schizophrenia experience increased induced abortion compared with those without schizophrenia, and identified factors associated with induced abortion risk.
In a population-based, repeated cross-sectional study (2011–2013), we compared women with and without schizophrenia in Ontario, Canada on rates of induced abortions per 1000 women and per 1000 live births. We then followed a longitudinal cohort of women with schizophrenia aged 15–44 years (n = 11 149) from 2011, using modified Poisson regression to identify risk factors for induced abortion.
Women with schizophrenia had higher abortion rates than those without schizophrenia in all years (15.5–17.5 v. 12.8–13.6 per 1000 women; largest rate ratio, 1.33; 95% CI 1.16–1.54). They also had higher abortion ratios (592–736 v. 321–341 per 1000 live births; largest rate ratio, 2.25; 95% CI 1.96–2.59). Younger age (<25 years; adjusted relative risk (aRR), 1.84; 95% CI 1.39–2.44), multiparity (aRR 2.17, 95% CI 1.66–2.83), comorbid non-psychotic mental illness (aRR 2.15, 95% CI 1.34–3.46) and substance misuse disorders (aRR 1.85, 95% CI 1.47–2.34) were associated with increased abortion risk.
These results demonstrate vulnerability related to reproductive healthcare for women with schizophrenia. Evidence-based interventions to support optimal sexual health, particularly in young women, those with psychiatric and addiction comorbidity, and women who have already had a child, are warranted.
Maternal anxiety negatively influences child outcomes. Reliable estimates have not been established because of varying published prevalence rates.
To establish summary estimates for the prevalence of maternal anxiety in the antenatal and postnatal periods.
We searched multiple databases including MEDLINE, Embase, and PsycINFO to identify studies published up to January 2016 with data on the prevalence of antenatal or postnatal anxiety. Data were extracted from published reports and any missing information was requested from investigators. Estimates were pooled using random-effects meta-analyses.
We reviewed 23 468 abstracts, retrieved 783 articles and included 102 studies incorporating 221 974 women from 34 countries. The prevalence for self-reported anxiety symptoms was 18.2% (95% CI 13.6–22.8) in the first trimester, 19.1% (95% CI 15.9–22.4) in the second trimester and 24.6% (95% CI 21.2–28.0) in the third trimester. The overall prevalence for a clinical diagnosis of any anxiety disorder was 15.2% (95% CI 9.0–21.4) and 4.1% (95% CI 1.9–6.2) for a generalised anxiety disorder. Postnatally, the prevalence for anxiety symptoms overall at 1–24 weeks was 15.0% (95% CI 13.7–16.4). The prevalence for any anxiety disorder over the same period was 9.9% (95% CI 6.1–13.8), and 5.7% (95% CI 2.3–9.2) for a generalised anxiety disorder. Rates were higher in low- to middle-income countries.
Results suggest perinatal anxiety is highly prevalent and merits clinical attention. Research is warranted to develop evidence-based interventions.
Up to 13% of psychiatric patients are readmitted shortly after discharge. Interventions that ensure successful transitions to community care may play a key role in preventing early readmission.
To describe and evaluate interventions applied during the transition from in-patient to out-patient care in preventing early psychiatric readmission.
Systematic review of transitional interventions among adults admitted to hospital with mental illness where the study outcome was psychiatric readmission.
The review included 15 studies with 15 non-overlapping intervention components. Absolute risk reductions of 13.6 to 37.0% were observed in statistically significant studies. Effective intervention components were: pre- and post-discharge patient psychoeducation, structured needs assessments, medication reconciliation/education, transition managers and in-patient/out-patient provider communication. Key limitations were small sample size and risk of bias.
Many effective transitional intervention components are feasible and likely to be cost-effective. Future research can provide direction about the specific components necessary and/or sufficient for preventing early psychiatric readmission.
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