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A proportion of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) manifests with only unipolar mania (UM). This study examined relevant clinical features and psychosocial characteristics in UM compared with depressive-manic (D-M) subgroups. Moreover, comorbidity patterns of physical conditions and psychiatric disorders were evaluated between the UM and D-M groups.
This clinical retrospective study (N = 1015) analyzed cases with an average of 10 years of illness duration and a nationwide population-based cohort (N = 8343) followed up for 10 years in the Taiwanese population. UM was defined as patients who did not experience depressive episodes and were not prescribed adequate antidepressant treatment during the disease course of BD. Logistic regression models adjusted for relevant covariates were used to evaluate the characteristics and lifetime comorbidities in the two groups.
The proportion of UM ranged from 12.91% to 14.87% in the two datasets. Compared with the D-M group, the UM group had more psychotic symptoms, fewer suicidal behaviors, a higher proportion of morningness chronotype, better sleep quality, higher extraversion, lower neuroticism, and less harm avoidance personality traits. Substantially different lifetime comorbidity patterns were observed between the two groups.
Patients with UM exhibited distinct clinical and psychosocial features compared with patients with the D-M subtype. In particular, a higher risk of comorbid cardiovascular diseases and anxiety disorders is apparent in patients with D-M. Further studies are warranted to investigate the underlying mechanisms for diverse presentations in subgroups of BDs.
The Brain Health Test-7 (BHT-7) is a revised tool from the original BHT, containing more tests about frontal lobe function. It was developed with theaim of identifying patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early dementia.
Here we report the validity of the BHT-7 versus the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) in differentpsychiatry or neurology clinics.
Patients with memory complaints were recruited in this study from the outpatient clinic of psychiatry or neurology in 3 different kinds of hospitals. Allpatients underwent the evaluation of the BHT-7, MMSE, MoCA, and clinical dementia rating (CDR). The clinical diagnosis (normal, MCI, dementia) was made by consensus meeting, taking into account all available data.
Demographic data and the scores of the MMSE, MoCA, and BHT-7 between groups were compared. Logistic regression was adopted for analysis of optimal cutoff values, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve,and the area under the ROC curve (AUC).
We enrolled a total of 1090 subjects (normal 402, MCI 317, dementia 371); of them, 705 (64.7%) were female. There was a statistically significant differencein age, years of education, and 3 cognitive test scores among the 3 groups.
Compared with the MMSE and MoCA, the BHT-7 performed slightly betterthan MMSE and MoCA in differentiating MCI or dementia from the normalcontrols (Table 1). For BHT- 7, the cutoff point was 17 between normal andMCI, and 14 between normal and dementia. These cutoff points for BHT-7were consistent through 3 different clinical settings, but inconsistent for MMSE and MoCA. The testing time for the BHT-7 was about 5-7 minutes, shorter than that of the MMSE and MoCA.
Compared with MMSE and MoCA, the BHT-7 showed slightly better performance in differentiating normal from MCI or dementia subjects. The testing time for the BHT-7 was shorter, and its cutoff points were consistent through different outpatient clinic settings. The results support that BHT-7 is auseful cognitive screening tool for MCI or early dementia in various hospital settings.
Comparisons of the performance of BHT-7, MMSE, MoCA
Commercial sex has been a complex and controversial issue in Taiwan. It was banned several times and finally partially legalized in law when the Congress finally amended Article 80 of the Social Order Maintenance Law and authorized local governments to establish red-light districts. Unfortunately, in reality, until now, no local government has established a red-light district. Therefore, all commercial sex is still illegal in Taiwan. By reviewing this issue from gender, culture, and legal perspectives, this paper discusses the regulation of commercial sex in Taiwan in three parts. In the first part, this paper provides a historical view of the development of commercial sex and how the government regulated it in different periods. In the second part, this paper introduces the debate and various perspectives of feminist legal theories on this issue. Finally, compared with the regulation models of Japan and Singapore, this paper proposes an empowerment approach in response to the current Social Order Maintenance Law. Focusing on sex workers’ autonomy and subjectivity, the new approach hopes to balance the interests between the rights of sex workers and the needs of social order and public health.
The electrode materials for VRFB should possess higher electric conductivity, corrosion resistance and hydrophilic properties in sulfuric acid. The characteristics of the electrode materials affect the stability and the energy efficiency of VRFB. Carbon materials are the best suited for VRFB applications. In this study, the calcined treatment, acid treatment and ozone treatment were used to modify the surface of carbon papers. The redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+ on the modified carbon papers was evaluated by cyclic voltammetry (CV). The surface compositions of carbon materials were analyzed by X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). The experimental results reveal that three oxidative methods enhance the redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+. The calcined treatments and acid treatments also enhanced hydrolysis reaction. The mole ratio of O/C apparently increased, but the binding energy of C1s and O1s were not chemically shifted in the acid treatment. The intensity of binding energy of O1s, between 532 eV and 534 eV, apparently increased in the ozone and calcined treatments. The Ox treated samples were more hydrophilic than the Oz treated samples. In the Ox treated samples, the decrease of Rct value indicates that was contributed from the redox reaction of [VO]2+/[VO2]+ and hydrolysis reaction. It does not completely benefit the energy efficiency of VRFB. The 5 x 5 cm2 modified carbon papers were used as electrode materials in the VRFB. The voltage efficiency, coulomb efficiency and energy efficiency reached 93 %, 90 % and 83 %, respectively, at a current density of 12 mA．cm-2 at 0.8-1.8 V.
This study explores the phenomena associated with conflicts of interest, particularly as they pertain to the brokerage and proprietary trading divisions of investment banks. This distinguishes it from past studies, which have researched conflicts of interest between underwriting and brokerage divisions. We examine whether or not an investment bank issues buy recommendations to the market and buys (sells) the same recommended stocks through its proprietary trading division before (after) recommendations, and if so, to what extent this goes on. We find that these conflicts of interest do exist and that these investment banks can profit from their recommendations in the short run.
Ternary Sn-In-Cu alloys are prepared and equilibrated at 250 °C for 2 to 20 weeks. The phases formed in these alloys are experimentally determined. The 250 °C Sn-In-Cu isothermal section is established according to the phase equilibrium information obtained in this study and that of the three constituent binary systems. It has eight single-phase regions, namely liquid, δ1-Cu41Sn11, ε-Cu3Sn, δ2-Cu7In3, η-(Cu6Sn5, Cu2In), Cu11In9, Cu2In3Sn, and α-(Cu) phases, 14 two-phase regions, and seven three-phase regions. In the Sn-In-Cu system at 250 °C, the η-Cu6Sn5 and η-Cu2In phases form a continuous solid solution and the ternary Cu2In3Sn compound is observed. The δ1-Cu41Sn11 phase is stabilized at 250 °C with the introduction of indium although it transforms into α-(Cu) and ε-Cu3Sn phases via a eutectoid reaction around 350 °C in the binary Sn-Cu system. Except for the Cu11In9 phase and the Cu2In3Sn ternary compound, the other binary compounds all have significant indium and tin mutual solubilities.
We have fabricated La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 periodic arrays exhibiting tunable optical properties and magnetic properties using nontoxic and environmentally friendly electron beam resist made from La0.6Ca0.4MnO3 sol-gel precursor. We studied their unique optical properties by using the spectral microreflectometer and their magnetic properties using the superconducting quantum interference device and magnetic force microscopy. Additionally, the resist has the ability to demonstrate both positive and negative resist behaviors depending on the electron beam dosage. With these special characteristics, we can fabricate periodic structure on a thin film possessing controlled optical reflectance properties with one fixed design electron beam pattern without changing the structural parameters but changing the electron beam dosage only. Our approach provides an uncomplicated route for the fabrication of nanometer scale magnetic patterns, which serve as the building blocks in the search for novel properties of periodic magnetic arrays.
We reviewed genotyping and medical records of 53 patients with end-stage renal disease and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia in a medical center in Taiwan. In multivariate analysis, hospitalization within the previous year was independently negatively associated with infection with community-associated MRSA strains, and an increased number of years of dialysis predicted the recovery of patients infected with community-associated MRSA strains.
The high sensitivity and spatial resolution enabled by two-photon excitation fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (2PE-FLIM/FRET) provide an effective approach that reveals protein-protein interactions in a single cell during stimulated exocytosis. Enhanced green fluorescence protein (EGFP)–labeled synaptosomal associated protein of 25 kDa (SNAP25A) and red fluorescence protein (mRFP)–labeled Rabphillin 3A (RPH3A) were co-expressed in PC12 cells as the FRET donor and acceptor, respectively. The FLIM images of EGFP-SNAP25A suggested that SNAP25A/RPH3A interaction was increased during exocytosis. In addition, the multidimensional (three-dimensional with time) nature of the 2PE-FLIM image datasets can also resolve the protein interactions in the z direction, and we have compared several image analysis methods to extract more accurate and detailed information from the FLIM images. Fluorescence lifetime was fitted by using one and two component analysis. The lifetime FRET efficiency was calculated by the peak lifetime (τpeak) and the left side of the half-peak width (τ1/2), respectively. The results show that FRET efficiency increased at cell surface, which suggests that SNAP25A/RPH3A interactions take place at cell surface during stimulated exocytosis. In summary, we have demonstrated that the 2PE-FLIM/FRET technique is a powerful tool to reveal dynamic SNAP25A/RPH3A interactions in single neuroendocrine cells.
The optimized N2O fluence is demonstrated for plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) of Si-rich substoichiometric silicon oxide (SiOx) films with buried Si nanocrystals. Strong room-temperature photoluminescence (PL) at 550-870 nm has been observed in SiOx films grown by PECVD under a constant SiH4 fluence of 20 sccm with an N2O fluence varying from 105 sccm to 130 sccm. A 22-nm-redshift in the central PL wavelength has been detected after annealing from 15 min to 180 min. The maximum PL irradiance is observed from the SiOx film grown at the optimal N2O fluence of 120 sccm after annealing for 30 minutes. Larger N2O fluence or longer annealing time leads to a PL band that is blue-shifted by 65 nm and 20 nm, respectively. Such a blue shift is attributed to shrinkage in the size of the Si nanocrystals with the participation of oxygen atoms from N2O incorporated within the SiOx matrix. The (220)-oriented Si nanocrystals exhibit radii ranging from 4.4 nm to 5.0 nm as determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The luminescent lifetime lengthens to 52 μs as the nc-Si size increase to > 4 nm. Optimal annealing times for SiOx films prepared at different N2O fluences are also reported. A longer annealing process results in a stronger oxidation effect in SiOx films prepared at higher N2O fluences, yielding a lower PL irradiance at shorter wavelengths. In contrast, larger Si nanocrystals can be precipitated when the N2O fluence becomes lower; however, such a SiOx film usually exhibits weaker PL at longer wavelength due to a lower nc-Si density. These results indicate that a N2O/SiH4 fluence ratio of 6:1 is the optimized PECVD growth condition for the Si-rich SiO2 wherein dense Si nanocrystals are obtained after annealing.
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of external ear canal schwannoma in the English literature. Several detailed clinical and pathological features were demonstrated. We suggest that if a tender, encapsulated mass is found in the external ear canal, the diagnosis of schwannoma should be taken into consideration.
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