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Wave radiation and diffraction by a circular cylinder submerged below an ice sheet with a crack are considered based on the linearized velocity potential theory together with multipole expansion. The solution starts from the potential due to a single source, or the Green function satisfying both the ice sheet condition and the crack condition, as well as all other conditions apart from that on the body surface. This is obtained in an integral form through Fourier transform, in contrast to what has been obtained previously in which the Green function is in the series form based on the method of matched eigenfunction expansion in each domain on both sides of the crack. The multipole expansion is then constructed through direct differentiation of the Green function with respect to the source position, rather than treating each multipole as a separate problem. The use of the Green function enables the problem of wave diffraction by the crack in the absence of the body to be solved directly. For the circular cylinder, wave radiation and diffraction problems are solved by applying the body surface boundary condition to the multipole expansion, through which the unknown coefficients are obtained. Extensive results are provided for the added mass and damping coefficient as well as the exciting force. When the cylinder is away from the crack, a wide spacing approximation method is used, which is found to provide accurate results apart from when the cylinder is quite close to the crack.
The purpose of the present study was to examine the influence of maternal pre-pregnancy BMI and gestational weight gain (GWG) on initiation and duration of infant breast-feeding in a prospective birth cohort study.
Breast-feeding information was collected at 1, 3, 6 and 12 months postpartum. The association of pre-pregnancy BMI and GWG with delayed lactogenesis II and termination of exclusive breast-feeding was assessed with logistic regression analysis. The risk of early termination of any breast-feeding during the first year postpartum was assessed with Cox proportional hazards models.
Urban city in China.
Women with infants from the Ma’anshan Birth Cohort Study (n 3196).
The median duration of any breast-feeding in this cohort was 7·0 months. Pre-pregnancy obese women had higher risks of delayed lactogenesis II (risk ratio=1·89; 95 % CI 1·04, 3·43) and early termination of any breast-feeding (hazard ratio=1·38; 95 % CI 1·09, 1·75) adjusted for potential maternal and infant confounders, when compared with normal-weight women. No differences in breast-feeding initiation or duration of exclusive breast-feeding according to pre-pregnancy BMI were found. Moreover, GWG was not associated with any poor breast-feeding outcomes.
The present study indicated that pre-pregnancy obesity increases the risks of delayed lactogenesis II and early termination of any breast-feeding in Chinese women.
Methods of imaging and image analysis are presented for dusty plasma experiments. Micron-sized polymer spheres, electrically suspended in a partially ionized gas, are illuminated by a sheet of laser light and imaged by video cameras. Image analysis methods yield particle positions and velocities of individual particles in each video image. Methods to minimize errors in the particle positions and velocities, which are now commonly used in the dusty plasma community, are described.
Introduction: The mortality of Parkinson’s disease (PD) and its associated risk factors among clinically definite PD patients in China has been rarely investigated. Our study aimed to identify the mortality rates and predictors of death in PD patients in China. Methods: 157 consecutive, clinically definite PD patients from the urban area of Shanghai were recruited from a central hospital based movement disorder clinic in 2006. All patients were regularly followed up at the clinic until December 31, 2011, or death. Mortality and associations with baseline demographics, health and medical factors were then determined within the cohort. Results: After 5 years, 11(7%) patients had died. The standardised mortality ratio was 0.62 (95% CI 0.32 to 1.07, P=0.104). The main causes of death were pneumonia (54.5%, 6/11) and digestive disorders (18.2%, 2/11), respectively. Age at onset, independent living, the mini mental state examination score, the Parkinson’s disease sleep scale score and the Epworth sleepiness scale score at baseline were statistically significantly different between the survival group and the deceased group (P<0.05). Across all participants, risk factors for death included low mini mental state examination score, and high Epworth sleepiness scale score according to a binary variable logistic regression analysis. Conclusions: This study confirms the similar survival of patients with PD to the control population up to a follow-up of 5 years. Interventions tailored to potential risk factors associated with death may offer further benefits.
The present study aims to evaluate the antiparasitic activity of active components from Costus speciosus against Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Bioassay-guided fractionation was employed to identify active compounds from C. speciosus yielding 2 bioactive compounds: Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin. In-vitro assays revealed that Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin could be 100% effective against I. multifiliis at concentrations of 0·8 and 4·5 mg L−1, with median effective concentration (EC50) values of 0·53 and 3·2 mg L−1, respectively. All protomonts and encysted tomonts were killed when the concentrations of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin were 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1. In-vivo experiments demonstrated that fish treated with Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin at concentrations of 1·0 and 5·0 mg L−1 carried significantly fewer parasites than the control (P<0·05). Mortality of fish did not occur in the treatment group (Zingibernsis newsaponin at 5·0 mg L−1) during the trial, although 100% of untreated fish died. Acute toxicities (LD50) of Gracillin and Zingibernsis newsaponin for grass carp were 1·64 and 20·7 mg L−1, respectively. These results provided evidence that the 2 compounds can be selected as lead compounds for the development of new drugs against I. multifiliis.
Seed protein content is one of the most important traits controlled by quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in soybean. In this study, a Glycine soja accession (ZYD2738) was crossed with two elite cultivars Jidou 12 and Jidou 9 separately and subsequently the resulting F2:3 populations were used to identify QTLs associated with seed protein content. Protein contents in either population appeared to have a normal distribution with transgressive segregation. A total of five QTLs associated with high protein content were identified and mapped to chromosomes 2, 6, 13, 18 and 20, respectively. Of these QTLs, three (qPRO_2_1, qPRO_13_1 and qPRO_20_1) were identified in the same region in both the populations, whereas the other two (qPRO_6_1 and qPRO_18_1) were mapped in two different regions. qPRO_2_1 appears to be a novel protein QTL. qPRO_6_1, qPRO_18_1 and qPRO_20_1 had additive effects on seed protein content, while qPRO_13_1 had an over-dominant effect on seed protein content. These QTLs and their linked markers could serve as effective tools for marker-assisted selection to increase seed protein content.
The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chitosan (CS)-Zn on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function in weanling pigs. A total of 150 weanling barrows with a body weight of 7·2 kg were randomly allocated into five groups. A basal diet without Zn supplementation was used as the control and other four groups were fed the control diet supplemented with 50 or 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn, 100 mg/kg of Zn as ZnSO4 and 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO, respectively. The feeding trial lasted for 28 d. The results showed that serum diamine oxidase activities, d-lactate levels and endotoxin contents were lower in pigs fed dietary 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or 3000 mg/kg of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control or 100 mg Zn/kg as ZnSO4 diet. The ratios of the villus height:crypt depth of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum were higher in pigs that received 100 mg/kg of Zn as CS-Zn or a high level of Zn as ZnO than in pigs fed the control diet. Moreover, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate-biotin nick end labelling (TUNEL)-stained ileal epithelial cells were found in the control group, and apoptotic cells did not appear prominently in pigs that received the 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO diet. Secretory IgA concentration in ileal mucus was increased in the dietary group that received 100 mg/kg of CS-Zn or ZnO. These results indicated that dietary 100 mg CS-Zn/kg had similar biological effects to dietary 3000 mg ZnO/kg on intestinal morphology, mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis and mucosal immune function.
To date, there has been little improvement in cryopreservation of bull sperm due to lack of understanding of the freezing mechanisms. Therefore, this study set out to investigate expression levels of fertility-associated proteins in bull sperm, and in particular the relationship between the 90 kDa heat-shock protein (HSP90) and the sperm characteristics after freezing–thawing. Semen was collected from eight Holstein bulls by artificial vagina. Characteristics of these fresh semen, including sperm motility, morphology, viability and concentration, were evaluated. Sperm quality was also assessed after freezing–thawing. Eight ejaculates were divided into two groups based on freezing resistance and sperm motility. Sperm proteins were extracted and sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis and western blotting were performed. SDS-PAGE results showed that there was substantial diversity in 90 kDa proteins in the frozen–thawed sperm and HSP90 was confirmed as one of the 90 kDa proteins by western blot. This study indicated that HSP90 expression correlated positively with sperm quality. The amount of expressed 90 kDa proteins in the high freezing resistance (HFR) group was significantly higher than that in the low freezing resistance (LFR) group (P < 0.05). Thus, higher expression of HSP90 could probably lead to the higher motility and freezing resistance of sperm found after freezing–thawing. Therefore, we concluded that level of HSP90 expression could be used to predict reliably and simply the freezing resistance of bull sperm.
Low-density lipoproteins (LDL) is known to protect boar sperm during freezing–thawing, but little information is known about the effects of LDL extracted from different avian egg yolks on post-thaw boar semen quality. The purpose of this study was to compare and analyze the effects of LDL at various concentrations and different species on boar sperm quality after freezing–thawing. LDL extracted from the yolk of hen egg, duck egg, quail egg, pigeon egg or ostrich egg was added to the extender at the concentrations of 0.06, 0.07, 0.08, 0.09 and 0.1 g/ml, respectively, and their effects on frozen–thawed boar sperm quality were assessed. According to all measured parameters, the results showed that sperm motility, acrosome integrity and plasma membrane integrity were 43.20%, 52.57% and 48.13%, respectively, after being frozen–thawed with 0.09 g/ml LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk. All these quality parameters were higher than that of other groups (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our results confirmed that LDL extracted from pigeon egg yolk had the best cryoprotective effects on frozen–thawed boar sperm among all of the groups supplemented with LDL from five kinds of avian egg in extender. The optimum concentration of LDL extracted from pigeon egg in boar semen freezing extender was 0.09 g/ml.
The coast of Bohai Bay, north-western Yellow Sea, is critical for waterbirds migrating along the East Asia-Australasian Flyway. Between 1994 and 2010, a total of 450 km2 of offshore area, including 218 km2 of intertidal flats (one third of the original tidal area in the bay), has been reclaimed along the bay for two industrial projects. This has caused the northward migrants to become concentrated in an ever smaller remaining area, our core study site. The spring peak numbers of two Red Knot subspecies in the East Asia-Australasian Flyway, Calidris canutus piersmai and C. c. rogersi, in this so far little affected area increased from 13% in 2007 to 62% in 2010 of the global populations; the spring peak numbers of Curlew Sandpiper C. ferruginea increased from 3% in 2007 to 23% in 2010 of the flyway population. The decline in the extent of intertidal mudflats also affected Relict Gulls Larus relictus, listed by IUCN as ‘Vulnerable’; during normal winters 56% of the global population moved from the wintering habitats that were removed in Tianjin to the relatively intact areas around Tangshan. Densities of wintering Eurasian Curlew Numenius arquata, and spring-staging Broad-billed Sandpiper Limicola falcinellus and Sanderling Calidris alba have also increased in the remaining areas. With the proposed continuation of land reclamation in Bohai Bay, we predict waterbird densities in the remaining areas to increase to a point of collapse. To evaluate the future of these fragile, shared international resources, it is vital to promote an immediate conservation action plan for the remaining coastal wetlands in this region, and continued population monitoring to determine the effects of this action.
To derive age- and sex-specific reference values for waist circumference (WC) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) for Han Chinese children and adolescents and to establish the prevalence of excess central adiposity in our study population.
Cross-sectional study of schoolchildren attending randomly selected primary and secondary schools in south-west China in October 2003 and April 2004. Anthropometry was measured using standard procedures. The LMS method was used to construct smoothed WC and WHtR percentile curves. Overweight and obesity were defined by the International Obesity Task Force (IOTF) criteria and the Working Group on Obesity in Children. Excess central adiposity fat was defined by previously published WC cut-points and a WHtR ≥ 0·5.
Primary and secondary schools in Chongqing, south-west China.
A total of 7326 (49·2 % boys) Han Chinese students at 5–17 years old.
On the basis of the IOTF criteria, 26·4 % of boys were overweight or obese compared with 16·4 % of girls (P < 0·001). WC cut-points identified 31 % of boys and 28 % of girls as having excess central adiposity, whereas using the WHtR criterion, 14·8 % of boys and 5·6 % of girls were identified. Young boys (5–12 years) had a significantly (P < 0·001) higher WHtR than girls.
We have constructed WC and WHtR percentile curves for Han Chinese children and adolescents living in Chongqing. Our measurements were based on a student population with a relatively high rate of overweight and obesity. These data will provide a point of reference for future studies measuring the prevalence of overweight and obesity in China.
A 3-year study of spotted fever group rickettsial ecology in Inner Mongolia revealed that nearly half of the human population tested had antibodies to Rickettsia sibirica detected by complement fixation test. Infected persons, ticks and a high proportion of seropositive livestock and wild rodents were found in all five vegetation zones (desert, steppe, forest, forest-grassland and grassland).
Reports about the role of autoimmunity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are inconsistent. The aim of this work was to investigate the effect of IgG from patients with ALS on motor neurons in a physiological-like surrounding.
Using affinity chromatography, IgG from six ALS patients, four disease controls and five healthy subjects was purified. Organotypic spinal cord cultures, which conserve the structure of the spinal cord in a horizontal plane and are suitable for studies with long-term treatment, were used and IgG with different concentrations ranging from 0.05 mg/mL to 0.5 mg/mL was added to the culture medium. Ventral motor neuron survival was evaluated by morphology and SMI-32 immunohistochemistry staining. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) level in the culture medium was measured by colorimetry.
After cultures were treated with ALS IgG for three weeks, the number and morphology of motor neurons showed little change. In addition, there was no significant difference in lactate dehydrogenase release between cultures treated with medium alone, normal control IgG, disease control IgG or ALS IgG.
The results indicate that IgG from these ALS patients was insufficient per se to induce motor neuron death in Organotypic slice cultures. However, this does not preclude the possibility that other changes may have occurred in the motor neurons. This work offered a new model to evaluate the role of IgG in the pathogenesis of ALS. Organotypic cultures contribute to study of the impact of IgG on motor neurons by mimicking physiological conditions.
The structural gene encoding ApxII toxin (apxIIA) was amplified from the genomic DNA of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae (APP) strain HB08 (serotype 2) and cloned into the prokaryotic expression vector pET-28a. SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis showed that the apxIIA gene was expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and the expressed products could react with ApxII antibodies. The recombinant ApxIIA was purified from the inclusion bodies. Kunming mice were intraperitoneally vaccinated twice, with an interval of 2 weeks, using unfolded/refolded recombinant proteins, the native ApxII toxin extracted from the cultural supernatant of a strain of APP serotype 7 (APP-7) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS). Serum antibody was examined by ApxIIA-specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) 2 weeks after every vaccination. Two weeks after the second vaccination, mice were challenged intraperitoneally with a lethal dose of APP-7 (1.08 × 108 cfu per mouse). The protection rate reached 91.7% in the native ApxII group, 83.3% in the refolded recombinant protein group and 58.3% in the unfolded recombinant protein group, while all mice in the PBS group died within 36 h after challenge. Our data revealed that the refolded recombinant ApxIIA had excellent immunogenicity and could elicit protection against a lethal challenge of APP.
Ginseng hairy roots were induced from root explants of ginseng by the co-culture of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and ginseng (Panax ginseng C. A. Mey) roots through direct inoculation. The content of ginsenosides in the ginseng hairy roots after 4 weeks of culture reached the same level as in 3-year-old cultivated ginseng roots, and the content of one ginsenoside (Rb1) increased, showing that left transferred DNA (TL-DNA) has a function of influencing the biosynthesis of ginsenosides. Based on analysis of the RiA4TL-DNA sequence, the rolC gene affecting the synthesis of ginsenosides was amplified and cloned from the ginseng hairy roots by PCR. Comparison with a previously published nucleotide sequence showed that the homology was 99.9%.
Product definition is widely accepted as one of the key factors
to be considered in the early stage of product design and
development. It has a direct impact on the success of a new
product in the marketplace. Frequently, product definition is
solicited through the voice of the customer (VoC). As such,
an organization will obtain a prominent competitive edge over
its competitors if it is able to effectively capture the genuine
VoC or the requirements of a customer. Sorting techniques provide
a means to elicit customer requirements. Although a number of
sorting techniques were developed, few of them are able to handle
the uncertainty and imprecision inherited from the VoC and
subjective judgment because of their crisp decision making.
An integrated approach is described, which is based on repeated
single-criterion sorts and fuzzy evaluation, for the elicitation
of customer requirements. The details of the integrated approach
are presented. The approach is validated using a case study
on the design of a wooden golf-club head. The details of the
validation are discussed.
A series of photochromic sol-gel films are prepared through entrapping tungsten heteropolyoxometallates (PW12O403−, SiW12O404−) and molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate (PMo12O403−) into a kind of inorganic–organic matrix cohydrolyzed from tetraethylorthosilicate and 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane. The films show reversible photochromicity. Irradiated with ultraviolet light, the transparent films change from colorless to blue. Then, bleaching occurs when the films are in contact with air or O2 in the dark. The Keggin-type polyanions interact with R–NH3+ cations strongly, and thus disperse uniformly in the sol-gel matrix, as proved by Fourier transform infrared spectra and x-ray diffraction. The molybdenum heteropolyoxometallate sol-gel film has higher photochromic efficiency and much slower bleaching than its counterparts of tungsten heteropolyoxometallate. A charge-transfer model which is supported by electron spin resonance and related literature [T. Yamase, Chem. Rev. 98, 307, (1998)] is put forth to explain the above experimental results.
Electron-microprobe analyses of muscovite, biotite, and feldspar are reported for the stratiform Yindongzi—Daxigou Pb—Zn—Ag and Fe deposits of Qinling, northwestern China. The micas are characterized by high Ba levels in banded albite-carbonate rocks that host the deposits. The biotite is also rich in Cl, as is biotite in the nearby Tongmugou Pb-Zn deposit, although biotite and muscovite from this deposit lack Ba enrichment. It is likely that the Ba-rich micas in the Yindongzi-Daxigou deposits formed contemporaneously from the diagenesis and/or regional metamorphism of hydrothermally altered clay minerals, with the barium being derived from entrained pore fluids that may represent relict hydrothermal fluids associated with ore deposition. During the formation of coexisting muscovite and biotite, barium is preferentially partitioned into muscovite and chloride into biotite. Together with the presence of baryte rocks in the bedded ores, these data suggest that ore deposition in the Yindongzi—Daxigou deposits took place in a more oxidising environment than in the nearby Tongmugou deposit. This difference is attributed to the contrasting sedimentary environments of the two deposits, with the Yindongzi—Daxigou deposits having formed under shallow, oxic conditions and the Tongmugou deposit under deeper, anoxic conditions.
Coexisting scapolite, biotite and hornblende in scapolite-biotite rocks from the Tongmugou Pb-Zn deposit, Qinling, northwestern China are characterized by high levels of chlorine. Scapolite composition varies from EqAn27 to EqAn47 with 47–80 wt.% Cl. The scapolite composition is a sensitive indicator of the NaCl activity in coexisting hydrothermal fluid. Biotite contains 0.3–1.2 wt. % Cl and also has high F contents (0.2–0.7 wt.%). The hornblende is a Cl-rich hastingsite with Cl>3.5 wt.% and high (Na2O + K2O) contents (3.2–3.9 wt. %), high Xk [= K/(K + Na)] values (0.45–0.55) and high XFc [= Fe/(Fe + Mg)] values (0.76–0.79). The chlorine within these minerals is thought to be derived from evolved seawater. The scapolite-biotite rocks are products of Cl-rich alteration of volcanoclastic sedimentary rocks during submarine hydrothermal processes. Multiple-stage hydrothermal activity culminated with the circulation of a high-NaCl fluid that was also responsible for the formation of the massive sulphide deposits.
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