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Abstract:GaN thin films on sapphire were grown by RF magnetron sputtering with ZnO buffer layer. The tremendous mismatch between the lattices of GaN and sapphire can be partly overcome by the use of thin buffer layer of ZnO. The dependence of GaN film quality on ZnO buffer layer was investigated by X-ray diffraction(XRD). The properties of the sputtered GaN are strongly dependent on ZnO buffer layer thickness. The optimum thickness of ZnO buffer layer is around 30nm. Using XRD analysis, we have found the optimal substrate temperature which can grow high quality GaN thin film. In addition, the effect of excimer laser annealing(ELA) on structural and electrical properties of GaN thin films was investigated. The surface roughness and images according to the laser energy density were investigated by atomic force microscopy(AFM) and it was confirmed that the crystallization was improved by increasing laser energy density.
Although blind people heavily depend on working memory to manage daily life without visual information, it is not clear yet whether their working memory processing involves functional reorganization of the memory-related cortical network. To explore functional reorganization of the cortical network that supports various types of working memory processes in the early blind, we investigated activation differences between 2-back tasks and 0-back tasks using fMRI in 10 congenitally blind subjects and 10 sighted subjects. We used three types of stimulus sequences: words for a verbal task, pitches for a non-verbal task, and sound locations for a spatial task. When compared to the sighted, the blind showed additional activations in the occipital lobe for all types of stimulus sequences for working memory and more significant deactivation in the posterior cingulate cortex of the default mode network. The blind had increased effective connectivity from the default mode network to the left parieto-frontal network and from the occipital cortex to the right parieto-frontal network during the 2-back tasks than the 0-back tasks. These findings suggest not only cortical plasticity of the occipital cortex but also reorganization of the cortical network for the executive control of working memory. (JINS, 2011, 17, 407–422)
In this study, defect-free Pt films with good adhesion were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by a two-step magnetron sputtering. This method consists of the first sputtering step using Ar/O2 gas mixture and the second step using Ar. After two-step deposition, an annealing process was followed at 600-1,000 °C in ambient atmosphere. In the first step, oxygen containing Pt films were deposited. Oxygen incorporated in the Pt films completely diffused out during the high temperature annealing. After the annealing process, the film became dense without catastrophic failures such as hillock, pinhole or buckling. Adhesion strength of films produced by this process was good enough to pass a tape test. It is believed that the good adhesion and the observed microstructural evolution are related to the oxygen in Pt films introduced during the first sputtering step. Adhesion, microstructural evolution and the role of oxygen in Pt films are briefly discussed.
Pt thin films were deposited by a DC magnetron sputtering with Ar/O2 gas mixtures. Due to the oxygen incorporation into the Pt films, deposition rate and resistivity of as-deposited Pt thin films increased with oxygen fraction in the sputtering gas. No peaks from crystalline Pt oxides were observed by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and excessive oxygen incorporation into Pt lead to an amorphous Pt oxide formation. More oxygen could be incorporated in the Pt thin films deposited at lower temperatures and at higher total pressures. Incorporated oxygen was completely removed after an annealing at 800 °C for an hour in air ambient, as the resistivity of the Pt thin films recovered their bulk resistivity values. Tensile stress of the Pt films decreased with oxygen incorporation, and approached a saturation level at high resistivity of the films, presumably due to the formation of amorphous Pt oxides.
Although electrical pacing is of great utility in many cardiovascular diseases, its effects on the combined cardiac cell therapy have not been established. We hypothesised that mesenchymal stem cell transplantation changes cardiac sympathetic nerve and gap junction, and concomitant pacing has additional biological effects.
We monitored cardiac rhythm for 4 weeks after human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation (1 × 107, epicardial injection) in 18 dogs in vivo, seven human mesenchymal stem cell with pacing, six human mesenchymal stem cell, and five sham, and evaluated the sympathetic innervation, nerve growth factor-β; tyrosine hydroxylase, angiogenesis, von Willebrand factor, and connexin43 expressions by real time (RT)–polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining. We also measured mRNA expressions of nerve growth factor-β, von Willebrand factor, and connexin43 in vitro culture of human mesenchymal stem cell with or without pacing.
Human mesenchymal stem cell transplanted hearts expressed higher mRNA of nerve growth factor-β (p < 0.01) with sympathetic nerves (p < 0.05), higher mRNA of von Willebrand factor (p < 0.001) with angiogenesis (p < 0.001), but lower mRNA of connexin43 (p < 0.0001) with reduced gap junctions (p < 0.001) than sham. Pacing with human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation resulted in higher expression of mRNA of connexin43 (p < 0.02) and gap junctions (p < 0.001) compared with sham. In contrast, in vitro paced mesenchymal stem cell reduced expression of connexin43 mRNA (p < 0.02).
Human mesenchymal stem cell transplantation increased cardiac sympathetic innervation and angiogenesis, but reduced gap junction after transplanted in the canine heart. In contrast, concomitant electrical pacing increased gap junction expression by paracrine action.
Decision making in an emotionally conflicting situation is important in social life. We aimed to address the similarity and disparity of neural correlates involved in processing ambivalent stimuli in patients with schizophrenia and patients with depression. Behavioral task-related hemodynamic responses were measured using [15O]H2O positron emission tomography (PET) in 12 patients with schizophrenia and 12 patients with depression. The task was a modified word-stem completion task, which was designed to evoke ambivalence in forced and non-forced choice conditions. The prefrontal cortex and the cerebellum were found to show increased activity in the healthy control group. In the schizophrenia group, activity in these two regions was negligible. In the depression group, the pattern of activity was altered and a functional compensatory recruitment of the inferior parietal regions was suggested. The prefrontal cortex seems to be associated with the cognitive control to resolve the conflict toward the ambivalent stimuli, whereas the cerebellum reflects the sustained working memory to search for compromise alternatives. The deficit of cerebellar activation in the schizophrenia group might underlie the inability to search and consider compromising responses for conflict resolution. (JINS, 2009, 15, 990–1001.)
We report the discovery of three new star clusters in the halo of the Local Group dwarf irregular galaxy NGC 6822. These clusters were found in the deep images taken with the MegaPrime at the CFHT covering a total field of 2 deg $\times$ 2 deg. The most remote cluster is found to be located as far as 79 arcmin away from the center of NGC 6822. This distance is several times larger than the size of the region in NGC 6822 where star clusters were previously found. Morphological structures of the clusters and color-magnitude diagrams of the resolved stars in the clusters show that at least two of these clusters are proabably old globular clusters.
The purpose of the present study was to characterize the Ca2+ channels in smooth
muscle cells from human stomach and to examine the effects of osmotic swelling on
the channel activity. Ca2+ channel current with either Ca2+ or Ba2+ as charge carrier
was recorded from freshly isolated smooth muscle cells using the conventional
whole-cell patch clamp technique. The degree of cell swelling as a result of hypotonic
challenge was monitored using a video image analysis system. The changes in
intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) were measured by microfluorimetry. The
pharmacological and voltage activation profile suggests a typical
dihydropyridine-sensitive L-type Ca2+ current. Cell swelling, induced by hypotonic
challenge, enhanced the amplitude of currents through L-type Ca2+ channels without
significant effects on steady-state voltage dependency. After treatment with the
L-type Ca2+ channel agonist Bay K 8644 (0.1-2 µM), no further significant increase in
calcium channel current or corresponding [Ca2+]i transients were provoked by the
swelling. The above results demonstrated that the presence of L-type Ca2+ current in
smooth muscle cells of the human stomach and the augmentation of the current are
closely associated with the volume increase resulting from hypotonic swelling.
Experimental Physiology (2000) 85.5, 497-504.
(200)-oriented Pt thin films were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates by dc magnetron sputtering using Ar/O2 gas mixtures. Oxygen incorporation into Pt films changed deposition rate, resistivity, stress, and preferred orientation of the films. Increase in film resistivity and decrease in tensile stress were presumed to be the results of the incorporated oxygen into grain boundaries, while the change of preferred orientation resulted from the oxygen incorporation into the Pt lattice. The preferential growth of (200) planes with less total strain energy from the incorporated oxygen resulted in strong (200) preferred orientation in Pt films.
Highly (200)-oriented Pt films on SiO2/Si substrates were successfully prepared by a combination of a dc magnetron sputtering using Ar/O2 gas mixtures and subsequent controlled annealing. The intensity ratio of (200) to (111) planes (I200/I111) was over 200. The (200)-oriented Pt microcrystallites were less susceptible to amorphization due to their lower strain energy with oxygen incorporation than (111)-oriented ones. The controlled grain growth from the selected (200)-oriented seed microcrystallites during subsequent annealing provided a kinetic pathway where grain growth of the seed microcrystallites was predominant, while suppressing the nucleation of surface energy-driven, (111)-oriented seed microcrystallites and subsequent (111) preferred orientation.
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