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Evaluate associations between orange juice (OJ) consumption and anthropometric parameters.
Prospective cohort study assessing the association between OJ intake and changes in BMI and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) using mixed linear regression.
Children from the Growing Up Today Study II (n 7301), aged 9–16 years at enrollment.
OJ consumption was positively associated with 2-year change in HAZ in girls (mean (se)): 0·03 (0·01) for non-consumers, 0·03 (0·02) for 1–3 glasses/month, 0·06 (0·01) for 1–6 glasses/week and 0·09 (0·02) for ≥1 glass/d after full adjustment (Ptrend = 0·02). However, OJ consumption was not associated with 2-year change in BMI percentile (kg/m2, mean (se)): –0·44 (0·36) for non-consumers, 0·20 (0·41) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·04 (0·34) for 1–6 glasses/week and –0·77 (0·62) for ≥1 glass/d in girls, Ptrend = 0·81; –0·94 (0·53) for non-consumers, –1·68 (0·52) for 1–3 glasses/month, –0·81 (0·38) for 1–6 glasses per week and –1·12 (0·61) for ≥1 glass/d in boys, Ptrend = 0·49.
OJ consumption was favourably associated with height growth but unrelated to excess weight gain. OJ may be a useful alternative to whole fruit in the event that whole fruit intake is insufficient.
We present experimental results regarding the thermodynamic stability of the high-k dielectrics ZrO2 and HfO2 in contact with Si and SiO2. The HfO2/Si interface is found to be stable with respect to formation of silicides whereas the ZrO2/Si interface is not. The metal oxide/SiO2 interface is marginally unstable with respect to formation of silicates. Cross-sectional transmission electron micrographs expose formation of nodules, identified as silicides, across the polysilicon/ZrO2/Si interfaces but not for the interfaces with HfO2. For both ZrO2 and HfO2, the X-ray photoemission spectra illustrate formation of silicate-like compounds in the MO2/SiO2 interface.
It is known that the chemistries of hafnium and zirconium are more nearly identical than for any other two congeneric elements. Thus, both zirconia and hafnia, with the dielectric constant K > 20, have emerged as potential replacements for silica (K = 3.9) as a gate dielectric. We report an important difference between the zirconia/Si and hafnia/Si interfaces based on density functional theory calculations with the Perdew-Wang 91 exchange-correlation functional on the oxides, silicides, and silicates of Zr and Hf. The zirconia/Si interface has been found to be unstable with respect to formation of silicides whereas the hafnia/Si interface is stable. The difference between the two interfaces results from the fact that HfO2 is more stable than ZrO2 (i.e. has a larger heat of formation from its constituent elements) by more than 53 kJ/mol. The hafnium silicides, on the other hand, are less stable than zirconium silicides by ca. 20 kJ/mol.
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