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Neighbourhood greenness or vegetative presence has been associated with indicators of health and well-being, but its relationship to depression in older adults has been less studied. Understanding the role of environmental factors in depression may inform and complement traditional depression interventions, including both prevention and treatment.
This study examines the relationship between neighbourhood greenness and depression diagnoses among older adults in Miami-Dade County, Florida, USA.
Analyses examined 249 405 beneficiaries enrolled in Medicare, a USA federal health insurance programme for older adults. Participants were 65 years and older, living in the same Miami location across 2 years (2010–2011). Multilevel analyses assessed the relationship between neighbourhood greenness, assessed by average block-level normalised difference vegetative index via satellite imagery, and depression diagnosis using USA Medicare claims data. Covariates were individual age, gender, race/ethnicity, number of comorbid health conditions and neighbourhood median household income.
Over 9% of beneficiaries had a depression diagnosis. Higher levels of greenness were associated with lower odds of depression, even after adjusting for demographics and health comorbidities. When compared with individuals residing in the lowest tertile of greenness, individuals from the middle tertile (medium greenness) had 8% lower odds of depression (odds ratio 0.92; 95% CI 0.88, 0.96; P = 0.0004) and those from the high tertile (high greenness) had 16% lower odds of depression (odds ratio 0.84; 95% CI 0.79, 0.88; P < 0.0001).
Higher levels of greenness may reduce depression odds among older adults. Increasing greenery – even to moderate levels – may enhance individual-level approaches to promoting wellness.
Objectives: To test the hypothesis that brain arterial diameters are associated with cognitive performance, particularly in arteries supplying domain-specific territories. Methods: Stroke-free participants in the Northern Manhattan Study were invited to have a brain MRI from 2003–2008. The luminal diameters of 13 intracranial arterial segments were obtained using time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA), and then averaged and normalized into a global score and region-specific arterial diameters. Z-Scores for executive function, semantic memory, episodic memory and processing speed were obtained at MRI and during follow-up. Adjusted generalized additive models were used to assess for associations. Results: Among the 1034 participants with neurocognitive testing and brain MRI, there were non-linear relationships between left anterior (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) diameter and semantic memory Z-scores (χ2=10.00; DF=3; p=.019), and left posterior cerebral artery (PCA) and posterior communicating artery (Pcomm) mean diameter and episodic memory Z-scores (χ2=9.88; DF=3; p=.020). Among the 745 participants who returned for 2nd neuropsychological testing, on average 5.0±0.4 years after their MRI, semantic memory change was associated non-linearly with the left PCA/Pcomm mean diameter (χ2=13.09; DF=3; p=.004) and with the right MCA/ACA mean diameter (χ2=8.43; DF=3; p=.03). In both cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses, participants with the larger brain arterial diameters had more consistently lower Z-scores and greater decline than the rest of the participants. Conclusions: Brain arterial diameters may have downstream effects in brain function presenting as poorer cognition. Identifying the mechanisms and the directionality of such interactions may increase the understanding of the vascular contribution to cognitive impairment and dementia. (JINS, 2018, 24, 335–346)
Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a clustering of vascular risk factors and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Less is known about the relationship between MetS and cognition. We examined component vascular risk factors of MetS as correlates of different cognitive domains. The Northern Manhattan Study (NOMAS) includes 1290 stroke-free participants from a largely Hispanic multi-ethnic urban community. We used structural equation modeling (SEM) to model latent variables of MetS, assessed at baseline and an average of 10 years later, at which time participants also underwent a full cognitive battery. The two four-factor models, of the metabolic syndrome (blood pressure, lipid levels, obesity, and fasting glucose) and of cognition (language, executive function, psychomotor, and memory), were each well supported (CFI=0.97 and CFI=0.95, respectively). When the two models were combined, the correlation between metabolic syndrome and cognition was −.31. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only blood pressure uniquely predicted all four cognitive domains. After adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, education, smoking, alcohol, and risk factor treatment variables, blood pressure remained a significant correlate of all domains except memory. In this stroke-free race/ethnically diverse community-based cohort, MetS was associated with cognitive function suggesting that MetS and its components may be important predictors of cognitive outcomes. After adjusting for sociodemographic and vascular risk factors, blood pressure was the strongest correlate of cognitive performance. Findings suggest MetS, and in particular blood pressure, may represent markers of vascular or neurodegenerative damage in aging populations. (JINS, 2014, 20, 1–10)
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