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This study proposes two multimodal frameworks to classify pathological voice samples by combining acoustic signals and medical records. In the first framework, acoustic signals are transformed into static supervectors via Gaussian mixture models; then, a deep neural network (DNN) combines the supervectors with the medical record and classifies the voice signals. In the second framework, both acoustic features and medical data are processed through first-stage DNNs individually; then, a second-stage DNN combines the outputs of the first-stage DNNs and performs classification. Voice samples were recorded in a specific voice clinic of a tertiary teaching hospital, including three common categories of vocal diseases, i.e. glottic neoplasm, phonotraumatic lesions, and vocal paralysis. Experimental results demonstrated that the proposed framework yields significant accuracy and unweighted average recall (UAR) improvements of 2.02–10.32% and 2.48–17.31%, respectively, compared with systems that use only acoustic signals or medical records. The proposed algorithm also provides higher accuracy and UAR than traditional feature-based and model-based combination methods.
Objective: Deficits in the semantic learning strategy were observed in subjects with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) in our previous study. In the present study, we explored the contributions of executive function and brain structure changes to the decline in the semantic learning strategy in aMCI. Methods: A neuropsychological battery was used to test memory and executive function in 96 aMCI subjects and 90 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs). The semantic clustering ratio on the verbal learning test was calculated to evaluate learning strategy. Medial temporal lobe atrophy (MTA) and white matter hyperintensities (WMH) were measured on MRI with the MTA and Fazekas visual rating scales, respectively. Results: Compared to HCs, aMCI subjects had poorer performance in terms of memory, executive function, and the semantic clustering ratio (P < .001). In aMCI subjects, no significant correlation between learning strategy and executive function was observed. aMCI subjects with obvious MTA demonstrated a lower semantic clustering ratio than those without MTA (P < .001). There was no significant difference in the learning strategies between subjects with high-grade WMH and subjects with low-grade WMH. Conclusion: aMCI subjects showed obvious impairment in the semantic learning strategy, which was attributable to MTA but independent of executive dysfunction and subcortical WMH. These findings need to be further validated in large cohorts with biomarkers identified using volumetric brain measurements. (JINS, 2019, 25, 706–717)
We have employed a simple and novel solution processing method to prepare V2O5-WO3 composite films which demonstrate enhanced Li-ion intercalation properties for applications in lithium-ion batteries. It should be noted that this solution processing method employs precursors that only contain the elements of V, W, O and H, which avoids impurity elements such as Na that has been commonly used in other solution methods. The V2O5-WO3 composite films show enhanced Li-ion intercalation properties compared to pure V2O5 and WO3 films. For example, V2O5-WO3 film with a molar ratio V2O5/WO3 of 10/1 exhibits a discharge capacity of 254 mA•h/g, while the pure V2O5 film delivers a discharge capacity of 76 mA•h/g at a high current density of 1.33 A/g. Such enhanced Li-ion intercalation properties are attributed to the reduced crystallinity and increased porosity and surface area in the composite films. In addition, the chronopotentiometric curves of the V2O5-WO3 film with a mol ratio of 10:1 are distinctively different from those of pure oxide films and other composite films with different V2O5/WO3 mol ratios, suggesting a different Li-ion intercalation process in the V2O5-WO3 film with the mol ratio of 10/1.
Third-generation semiconductors, such as ZnO and GaN, exhibit strong piezoelectric polarization due to the lack of inversion symmetry. The piezotronic effect observed in these semiconductors was proposed for tuning carrier transport in electronic devices by utilizing the induced piezoelectric potential as a virtual gate. This novel concept allows effective interactions between micro-/nanoelectronic devices and external mechanical stimuli. Piezotronics provide a promising approach for designing future electronic devices beyond Moore’s Law with potential for developing smart sensors, environment monitoring systems, human–machine interaction elements, and other transducers. In this article, we review recent progress in piezotronics using one-dimensional materials, heterojunctions, and large-scale arrays. We provide guidance for future piezotronic devices based on these materials.
Mutual fund managers with degrees from elite universities tend to outperform their counterparts from less elite universities. We show that the better performance of elite graduates is generated from their better connections with underwriters that facilitate allocations to underpriced initial public offerings (IPOs). Indeed, we find that the funds outperform only in months when they are connected to underwriters issuing IPOs. A strategy of buying mutual funds in months when they are connected to underwriters scheduled to issue IPOs generates significant abnormal returns, as high as 4.08% per annum in hot markets.
Introduction: To investigate the effects of paroxetine (PAR) on motor and cognitive function recovery in patients with non-depressed ischemic stroke (nD-AIS).
Methods: One hundred sixty-seven patients hospitalized for non-depressed acute ischemic stroke were selected and divided into treatment (T) and control (C) groups using a random number table. All patients received conventional secondary ischemic stroke prevention and rehabilitation training; patients in Group T additionally received treatment with PAR (10 mg/day during week 1 and 20 mg/day thereafter) for 3 months. The follow-up observation lasted 6 months. The Fugl–Meyer motor scale (FMMS), Montreal cognitive assessment (MoCA), and Hamilton depression scale (HAMD) were used on D0, D15, D90, and D180 (T0, 1, 2, and 3, respectively; D180 = 90 days after treatment cessation) after study initiation, and scores were compared between the groups.
Results: The FMMS and MoCA scores differed significantly between Groups T and C at T2 and T3 (p < .05); by contrast, these scores did not differ significantly between the groups at T1 (p > .05). Furthermore, the HAMD scores differed significantly between the two groups at T3 (p < .05), but not at T1 and T2 (p > .05).
Conclusions: PAR treatment may improve motor and cognitive function recovery in patients with nD-AIS. Moreover, PAR may reduce the occurrence of depression after stroke.
Suitable fertilization is crucial for the sustainability of rice production and for the potential mitigation of global warming. The effects of fertilization on porewater nutrients and greenhouse-gas fluxes in cropland, however, remain poorly known. We studied the effects of no fertilization (control), standard fertilization and double fertilization on the concentrations of porewater nutrients, greenhouse-gas fluxes and emissions, and rice yield in a subtropical paddy in southeastern China. Double fertilization increased dissolved NH4+ in porewater. Mean CO2 and CH4 emissions were 13.5% and 7.4%, and 20.4% and 39.5% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively, than the control. N2O depositions in soils were 61% and 101% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively, than the control. The total global warming potentials (GWPs) for all emissions were 14.1% and 10.8% higher for the standard and double fertilizations, respectively than the control, with increasing contribution of CH4 with fertilization and a CO2 contribution > 85%. The total GWPs per unit yield were significantly higher for the standard and double fertilizations than the control by 7.3% and 10.9%, respectively. The two levels of fertilization did not significantly increase rice yield. Prior long-term fertilization in the paddy (about 20 years with annual doses of 95 kg N ha−1, 70 kg P2O5 ha−1 and 70 kg K2O ha−1) might have prevented these fertilizations from increasing the yield. However, fertilizations increased greenhouse-gas emissions. This situation is common in paddy fields in subtropical China, suggesting a saturation of soil nutrients and the necessity to review current fertilization management. These areas likely suffer from unnecessary nutrient leaching and excessive greenhouse-gas emissions. These results provide a scientific basis for continued research to identify an easy and optimal fertilization management solution.
Rice is the main food for most of the human population, so sustainable rice production is very important for food security. The fertility of the soil in paddy fields is the key factor controlling rice growth and production. Steel slag amendment is becoming an effective method to increase the soil fertility, stabilize rice production and reduce greenhouse-gas emissions in Asiatic paddy fields (i.e. Korea, Japan, Bangladesh and China). We studied the relationships of steel slag amendment with plant–soil nutrient allocation, stoichiometry and rice yield in a paddy field in subtropical China. Amendment was associated with higher soil N and P availability, lower available-N:available-P ratio and higher available Ca and Si concentrations. Increases in P, Ca and Mg availability were correlated with high yields. High yields under steel slag amendment were also associated with high foliar and stem N and P concentrations and lower N:P ratios and with high shoot/root N and P concentration ratios, traits that are typically associated with productive ecosystems able to support species with high growth rates. The positive correlation between steel slag application and yield was partially due to an indirect effect (35% of the total effect) of enhancement of soil Ca, Si and P availability, which were positively correlated with yield. Steel slag amendment in this paddy field increased plant growth and yield by enhancing nutrient availability, altering soil and plant stoichiometry and shifting stem:root nutrient allocation.
Integration of photonic devices on silicon (Si) substrates is a key method in enabling large scale manufacturing of Si-based photonic–electronic circuits for next generation systems with high performance, small form factor, low power consumption, and low cost. Germanium (Ge) is a promising material due to its pseudo-direct bandgap and its compatibility with Si-CMOS processing. In this article, we present our recent progress on achieving high quality germanium-on-silicon (Ge/Si) materials. Subsequently, the performance of various functional devices such as photodetectors, lasers, waveguides, and sensors that are fabricated on the Ge/Si platform are discussed. Some possible future works such as the incorporation of tin (Sn) into Ge will be proposed. Finally, some applications based on a fully monolithic integrated photonic–electronic chip on an Si platform will be highlighted at the end of this article.
We present two isotopic (δ18O and δ13C) sequences of a twin-stalagmite from Zhuliuping Cave, southwestern China, with 230Th dates from 14.6 to 4.6 ka. The stalagmite δ18O record characterizes orbital- to decadal-scale variability of Asian summer monsoon (ASM) intensity, with the Holocene optimum period (HOP) between 9.8 and 6.8 ka BP which is reinforced by its co-varying δ13C data. The large multi-decadal scale amplitude of the cave δ18O indicates its high sensitivity to climate change. Four centennial-scale weak ASM events during the early Holocene are centered at 11.2, 10.8, 9.1 and 8.2 ka. They can be correlated to cold periods in the northern high latitudes, possibly resulting from rapid dynamics of atmospheric circulation associated with North Atlantic cooling. The 8.2 ka event has an amplitude more than two-thirds that of the Younger Dryas (YD), and is significantly stronger than other cave records in the Asia monsoon region, likely indicating a more severe dry climate condition at the cave site. At the end of the YD event, the δ13C record lags the δ18O record by 300–500 yr, suggesting a multi-centennial slow response of vegetation and soil processes to monsoon enhancement.
This paper presents the design and tests of a repetitive 800 kA fast linear transformer driver (LTD) stage aimed for the Z-pinch driven fusion-fission hybrid reactor (Z-FFR).The LTD stage consists of 34 parallel basic resistor R, inductor L, and capacitor C (RLC) circuits each made up of two 100 kV/40 nF capacitors, a multi-stage gas switch and Metglas magnetic cores. The stage can deliver about 800 kA current pulse with rise time of 100 ns into the matched liquid resistive load at a repetitive frequency 0.1 Hz. A novel method to trigger the stage via a continuous internal trigger bus composed by a single cable has been proposed and demonstrated. The experimental results show that the new trigger method is feasible and reliable. A 140 kV, 25 ns rising time trigger pulse, and a 5.2 kA, 30 μs width pre-magnetization current pulse which can operate at a repetition rate 0.1 Hz were used in this stage to insure the LTD stage generating a 80 kV/800 kA current pulse every 10 s. A multi-stage gas switch that has a lifetime in excess of 10,000 shots and a jitter less than 3 ns one sigma agrees well with the demand of Z-FFR. The electrical behavior of the stage can be predicted from a simple RLC circuit, which can simplify the design of various LTD-based accelerators.
A facile and novel method of fabricating large-area-patterned monolayer of polytetrafluoroethylene(PTFE) nanoparticles was achieved using surface charge induced colloidal deposition. Chemical processes of amination and hydroxylation were used to make the silicon substrates positively and negatively charged, respectively, while the PTFE colloidal nanoparticles were anisotropic and negatively charged. After colloidal deposition, an ordered monolayer with microholes was formed on the amination surface, while an island-like monolayer was achieved on the hydroxylation surface. Both of the two kinds of monolayers were as large as 1.5 square centimeters. It is worth pointing out that these large-area-patterned monolayers were fabricated without any templates and the whole process only took several hours. The formation mechanism of the different structures can be generally attributed to the cooperation and competition of three-body, two-body and particle-wall interactions. It is believed that the interesting patterned monolayer formation mechanism, high production efficiency, good adaptability and quality will make this novel method attractive.
As the demands of scientific research and application for specimens increase rapidly, biobanks in China have been springing up over the recent years. This paper summarizes Chinese biobanks through investigation and survey on operative, managerial, ethical conditions and challenges of biobanks. At present, hospitals and research institutes in China set up and operate most of the biobanks, collecting human specimens to support clinical and scientific research. With the development of bio-industry and arrival of the big data era, biobanks need not only collect and store human and non-human specimens but also to manage the big data associated with these specimens.
In this paper, we extend our previous work of classical over barrier ionization (COBI) model to study the multiple-ionization and mean charge state of noble gases colliding with heavy ions at energies close to the Bragg peak region ranging up to some hundreds of keV/amu. The method we report is in good agreement with experimental data and offers the advantage of very small computation time. Therefore, this model will be extremely helpful to be included in numerical codes to calculate the charge state distribution in plasma.
Business groups not only help affiliates circumvent market imperfections, but they also have great influence on the economic development of emerging markets. This study applies three ways to clarify the influence of business-group effects on affiliate performance. First, this study finds that the business group can explain a respectable portion of the variations in affiliate performance. Second, this study examines the impact of family ownership, resource abundance, and resource dispersion on affiliate performance and finds that group size and financial resources positively affect affiliate performance, while family ownership and group diversification do not have a significant effect on affiliate performance. Finally, the magnitude of business-group effects is subject to the ownership and resources of each business group. Family groups, large groups, and highly diversified groups have smaller business-group effects, while groups with high financial resources have greater business-group effects, indicating that business-group effects are heterogeneous and dependent on different group features. This study provides support to the resource-based and the institution-based views of business groups.
To compare potential risk factors for complications and recurrence after radiofrequency catheter ablation in symptomatic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia in children and adolescents.
We retrospectively reviewed the data of 213 consecutive patients with symptomatic atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia who underwent both electrophysiological study and radiofrequency catheter ablation, divided these patients into two groups, children (age <12 years) and adolescents (12 ≤ age < 18 years), and compared the location of the accessory pathway, success rate, recurrence rate, complications, presence of congenital heart disease, presence of intermittent ventricular pre-excitation, and presence of Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome in the two groups.
The position of the accessory pathway was mostly right sided in children (61.3%) and left sided in adolescents (61.5%). Children had significantly more congenital heart disease than adolescents (6.4% versus 0.8%). Univariate analysis showed children or adolescents with right-sided accessory pathways to be 6.84 times and those with accessory pathways on both sides of the septum 25 times more likely to relapse than those with a single accessory pathway. Multivariate analysis indicated that children or adolescents with two accessory pathways were six times, and those with intermittent ventricular pre-excitation nine times more at risk of relapsing following radiofrequency ablation than those with single accessory pathways. All five complications occurred in children.
The findings suggest that the position and number of accessory pathways and presence of intermittent ventricular pre-excitation are related to risks of recurrence of atrioventricular reentrant tachycardia in children and adolescents.
To examine whether the recent increasing prevalence of obesity was accompanied by variations in energy and macronutrient intakes by weight status.
Time series of cross-sectional surveys.
National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) in the USA.
Adult participants of NHANES I (1971–1974), II (1976–1980), III (1988–1994) and continuous (1999–2004).
Daily energy intake increased over time for men (9832 to 11 652 kJ, P < 0·01) and women (6418 to 8142 kJ, P < 0·01) in all BMI classes. Percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate increased over time (men: 42·7 % to 48·0 %, P < 0·01; women: 45·4 % to 50·6 %, P < 0·01), whereas percentage of energy intake from fat (men: 36·7 % to 33·1 %, P < 0·01; women: 36·1 % to 33·8 %, P < 0·01) and protein (men: 16·4 % to 15·1 %, P < 0·01; women: 16·9 % to 14·7 %, P < 0·01) decreased. With surveys combined, daily energy intake varied among BMI classes for women (underweight/normal weight: 7460 kJ; overweight: 6799 kJ; obese I: 7033 kJ; obese II/III: 7401 kJ; P < 0·01) but not men. Percentage of energy intake from carbohydrate decreased with increasing BMI class (men: 46·6 % to 45·5 %, P < 0·01; women: 49·0 % to 48·6 %, P < 0·01) whereas percentage of energy intake from fat (men: 34·3 % to 36·5 %, P < 0·01; women: 34·4 % to 35·4 %, P < 0·01) and protein (men: 15·3 % to 16·5 %, P < 0·01; women: 15·2 % to 16·0 %, P < 0·01) increased. Interactions of survey period and BMI class were not statistically significant.
Time trends in energy and macronutrient intakes were similar across BMI classes. Research examining how individuals respond differently to varying dietary compositions may provide greater insight about contributors to the rise in obesity.
Percutaneous transcatheter occlusion has benefited thousands of patients suffering from patent foramen ovale and atrial septal defect. However, no general agreement has been reached on the superiority among occluders. Thus, a meta-analysis between the two most commonly adopted types of occluders was conducted.
The literature review has identified relevant studies up to May, 2011 in the databases of PubMed, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and World Health Organization clinical trials registry centre. Meta-analysis was performed in a fixed/random effects model using Revman 5.1.1. Information on complications and outcomes was extracted.
Analysis from included studies reports an outcome in favour of the Amplatzer. The Amplatzer has proven its superiority in efficacy with a significantly lower risk of early (95% confidence interval = 0.09–0.34) and long-term (95% confidence interval = 0.14–0.97) residual shunt rate for atrial septal defect occlusion, although no significant difference in performance has been reported for patent foramen ovale. In addition, the Amplatzer has also remarkably reduced the risk of embolisation by the device (95% confidence interval = 0.07–0.45) for atrial septal defect and new-set atrial fibrillation (95% confidence interval = 0.18–0.48) for patent foramen ovale. On evaluation of recurrent thrombotic events, it was found that the Amplatzer greatly lowered the rate of thrombus formation on the device (95% confidence interval = 0.02–0.21) for patent foramen ovale; however, no statistical difference was found on atrial septal defect evaluation. However, the result indicated no statistically significant difference between the two kinds of occluders in stroke and transient ischaemic attack of patent foramen ovale.
The meta-analysis has proven the Amplatzer to be the superior occluder, serving better prognosis with more fluent procedure and less complications.