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Turbulence is commonly observed in nearly collisionless heliospheric plasmas, including the solar wind and corona and the Earth’s magnetosphere. Understanding the collisionless mechanisms responsible for the energy transfer from the turbulent fluctuations to the particles is a frontier in kinetic turbulence research. Collisionless energy transfer from the turbulence to the particles can take place reversibly, resulting in non-thermal energy in the particle velocity distribution functions (VDFs) before eventual collisional thermalization is realized. Exploiting the information contained in the fluctuations in the VDFs is valuable. Here we apply a recently developed method based on VDFs, the field–particle correlation technique, to a
, solar-wind-like, low-frequency Alfvénic turbulence simulation with well-resolved phase space to identify the field–particle energy transfer in velocity space. The field–particle correlations reveal that the energy transfer, mediated by the parallel electric field, results in significant structuring of the VDF in the direction parallel to the magnetic field. Fourier modes representing the length scales between the ion and electron gyroradii show that energy transfer is resonant in nature, localized in velocity space to the Landau resonances for each Fourier mode. The energy transfer closely follows the Landau resonant velocities with varying perpendicular wavenumber
. This resonant signature, consistent with Landau damping, is observed in all diagnosed Fourier modes that cover the dissipation range of the simulation.
Ubiquinone is a lipid antioxidant, and a novel liquid ubiquinol (a hydro-soluble, reduced form of coenzyme Q10) supplement was recently developed. The purpose of this study was to examine the levels of glucose, lipids and antioxidant capacity of type 2 diabetes patients after liquid ubiquinol supplementation. This study was designed as a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. In all, fifty participants were randomly assigned to a placebo (n 25) or liquid ubiquinol (100 mg/d, n 25) group, and the intervention lasted for 12 weeks. Plasma coenzyme Q10, glucose homoeostasis parameters, lipid profiles, oxidative stress and antioxidative enzyme activities were measured during the study. After 12 weeks of supplementation, glyco Hb (HbA1c) value was significantly decreased in the liquid ubiquinol group (P=0·03), and subjects in the liquid ubiquinol group had significantly lower anti-glycaemic medication effect scores (MES) compared with those in the placebo group (P=0·03). The catalase (P<0·01) and glutathione peroxidase (P=0·03) activities were increased significantly after supplementation. Plasma coenzyme Q10 was correlated with the insulin level (P=0·05), homoeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (P=0·07), quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (P=0·03) and the anti-hyperglycaemic agents’ MES (P=0·03) after supplementation. Lipid profiles did not change after supplementation; however, the subjects in the placebo group had a significantly lower level of HDL-cholesterol after 12 weeks of intervention. In conclusion, oral intake of 100 mg/d liquid ubiquinol might benefit type 2 diabetes patients by increasing antioxidant enzyme activity levels, reducing HbA1c levels and maintaining HDL-cholesterol levels.
Students in rural China are dropping out of secondary school at troubling rates. While there is considerable quantitative research on this issue, no systematic effort has been made to assess the deeper reasons behind student decision making through a mixed-methods approach. This article seeks to explore the prevalence, correlates and potential reasons for rural dropout throughout the secondary education process. It brings together results from eight large-scale survey studies covering 24,931 rural secondary students across four provinces, as well as analysis of extensive interviews with 52 students from these same study sites. The results show that the cumulative dropout rate across all windows of secondary education may be as high as 63 per cent. Dropping out is significantly correlated with low academic performance, high opportunity cost, low socio-economic status and poor mental health. A model is developed to suggest that rural dropout is primarily driven by two mechanisms: rational cost-benefit analysis or impulsive, stress-induced decision making.
The structure of the pulsar magnetosphere, the location of the radio emission region and the radio emission mechanism are important theoretical subjects in the research of pulsars. There may be close relations between these subjects. Nevertheless, it should be possible to set up some empirical relations among them which can be considered as a foundation for studying these important subjects. In this paper some of these relations are studied.
The phenomenon of pulse nulling was first found by Backer (1970). The fraction of time, we denote it by n(%), for a pulsar in a null state was given by Ritchings (1976) for 32 pulsars. We have found that the average value of n(%) increases with the period of pulsars. It perhaps implies that the pulsars with pulse nulling could constitute a subtype of pulsars. In this paper, the pulsars with pulse nulling are regarded as a subtype to be investigated.
Recently, the detection of non-bulk superconductivity with unexpectedly high onset-Tcs up to 49 K in Pr-doped CaFe2As2 [(Ca,Pr)122] single crystals and the report of a Tc up to 65 K in one-unit-cell (1UC) FeSe epi-films, offer an unusual opportunity to seek an answer to the question posed in the title. Through systematic compositional, structural, resistive, and magnetic investigations on (Ca,Pr)122 single crystals, we have observed a doping-level-independent Tc, the simultaneous appearance of superparamagnetism and superconductivity, large magnetic anisotropy, and the existence of mesoscopic-2D structures in these crystals, thus providing clear evidence consistent with the proposed interface-enhanced Tc in these naturally occurring rareearth-doped Fe-based superconductors, (Ca,R)122. Similar resistive and magnetic measurements were also made on the 3–4UC FeSe ultrathin epi-films. We have detected weak links in the Meissner state below 20 K, weakly coupled small superconducting patches between 20–45 K, and collective excitations of spin and/or superconducting nature between 45–80 K. The unusual frequency dependences of the diamagnetic moment observed in the films in different temperature ranges will be presented and their implications discussed.
The dust acoustic wave (DAW), associated with longitudinal dust oscillations in dusty plasmas, can be self-excited from the free energy of ion streaming. It is not only a fundamental plasma wave but also a paradigm to understand the generic dynamical behaviors of self-excited nonlinear longitudinal density waves through optically monitoring particle motion and dust density evolutions over a large area. In this paper, the dynamical behaviors of the wave-particle interaction and wave breaking in ordered self-excited DAW with straight wave fronts, and the defect-mediated wave turbulence with fluctuating defects and chaotic low amplitude hole filaments along defect trajectories in the 2+1D space-time space, are briefly reviewed. The first experimental observation of acoustic vortices with helical waveforms in self-excited acoustic-type defect-mediated wave turbulence, and the dynamics of spontaneous pair generation, propagation, and pair annihilation of acoustic vortices, is demonstrated and discussed.
Owing to energy conservation of waste heat, Lead telluride, PbTe, based materials have promising good thermoelectric properties around a range of middle temperature (Fig. 1, from 300 to 600°C), due to their high melting point, fine chemical stability, and the high figure of merit Z. The general physical properties and factors affecting the figure of merit have been reviewed. This research is focused on the n-type of PbTe materials and collocated with analysis of densities, hardness, elastic modulus, and thermoelectric properties thermoelectric figure of merit ZT=GS2T/κ (where G is electrical conductivity, S is Seebeck coefficient , T is absolute temperature, and κ is thermal conductivity). Room temperature hardness and Young’s modulus are measured by nano-indentation. In this study, the hot-press compacts under the pressure of 4 ton/cm2 can reach the maximum density about 8.2 g/cm3, and hardness and elastic modulus are 0.6 GPa and 70 GPa, respectively. The figure of merit value (ZT) of PbTe in low temperature (around 340°C) was found about 1 with carrier concentration above 1019 cm−3. These results also indicate that the powder metallurgy parameters provide potentialities for further increase of the high efficiency of energy conversion in PbTe materials.
Despite gradual understanding of the multidimensional health consequences
of betel-quid chewing, information on the effects of dependent use is
To investigate the 12-month prevalence patterns of betel-quid dependence
in six Asian populations and the impact of this dependence on oral
potentially malignant disorders (OPMD).
A multistage random sample of 8922 participants was recruited from
Taiwan, mainland China, Indonesia, Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nepal.
Participants were evaluated for betel-quid dependency using DSM-IV and
ICD-10 criteria and assessed clinically for oral mucosal lesions.
The 12-month prevalence of dependence was 2.8-39.2% across the six Asian
samples, and 20.9-99.6% of those who chewed betel-quid were betel-quid
dependent. Men dominated the prevalence among the east Asian samples and
women dominated the prevalence in south-east Asian samples. ‘Time spent
chewing’ and ‘craving’ were the central dependence domains endorsed by
the Chinese and southern/south-east Asian samples respectively, whereas
the Nepalese samples endorsed ‘tolerance’ and ‘withdrawal’. Dependency
was linked to age, gender, schooling years, drinking, smoking,
tobacco-added betel-quid use and environmental accessibility of
betel-quid. Compared with non-users, those with betel-quid dependency had
higher pre-neoplastic risks (adjusted odds ratios 8.0-51.3) than people
with non-dependent betel-quid use (adjusted odds ratio 4.5-5.9) in the
six Asian populations.
By elucidating differences in domain-level symptoms of betel-quid
dependency and individual and environmental factors, this study draws
attention to the population-level psychiatric problems of betel-quid
chewing that undermine health consequences for OPMD in six Asian
Fluorescent nanodiamonds (FNDs) with a size in the range of 10 – 100 nm have been produced by ion irradiation and annealing, and isolated by differential centrifugation. Single particle spectroscopic characterization with confocal fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy indicates that they are photostable and useful as an alternative to far-red fluorescent proteins for bioimaging applications. We demonstrate the application by performing in vivo imaging of bare and bioconjugated FND particles (100 nm in diameter) in C. elegans and zebrafishes and exploring the interactions between this novel nanomaterial and the model organisms. Our results indicate that FNDs can be delivered to the embryos of both organisms by microinjection and eventually into the hatched larvae in the next generation. No deleterious effects have been observed for the carbon-based nanoparticles in vivo. The high fluorescence brightness, excellent photostability, and nontoxic nature of the nanomaterial have allowed long-term imaging and tracking of embryogenesis in the organisms.
CD4+ T cells play a key role in the immune response of pathogen-induced mastitis in dairy cattle. Mammary gland factor STAT5b is involved in the regulation of CD4+T cell differentiation during inflammatory response and milk production. Little is known about the genetic variation effects of bovine CD4 and STAT5b genes on somatic cell score (SCS) and milk production traits in dairy cattle. The aim of the study was to investigate the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of bovine CD4 and STAT5b in Chinese Holsteins and to analyse their association with estimated breeding values (EBVs) for SCS and milk production traits. In the present study, SNPs of CD4 (NC_007303 g.13598C>T) and STAT5b (NC_007317 g.31562 T>C) were identified and genotyped in Chinese Holstein population. The results showed that both SNPs were significantly associated with the EBVs for milk yield and protein yield in Chinese Holstein cows, and the SNP in CD4 was associated with the EBV for SCS (P<0·01). The additive effect of CD4 SNP on protein yield was significant (P<0·05), and the dominant effect of STAT5b SNP was significant on milk yield and protein yield (P<0·01). Cows with combination genotype C7 (CCTT: CD4 g.13598C>T and STAT5b g.31562 T>C) had the highest SCS EBV but lower milk yield, while cows with C2 (TTTC) produced more milk, fat and protein than the other eight combination genotypes. These results suggested that the SNPs in CD4 and STAT5b may be potential genetic markers for SCS and milk/protein yields selecting and warrant further functional research.
The present work analyzes the effects of a passive film formed during stress corrosion cracking on ductile/brittle fracture behavior, considering the interaction of a screw dislocation with a thin film-covered mode III crack under an applied remote load. Exact solutions are derived, and the results show that the crack stress field due to the applied load is enhanced by a harder film or abated by a softer film. The critical stress intensity factor for dislocation emission from the crack tip is greatly influenced by both the stiffness and thickness of the filn. A dislocation is more easily to be emitted from the crack tip if the covered film has a shear modulus larger than that of the substrate. The opposite is also true, i.e., a softer film makes dislocation emission more difficult. Both phenomena become more significant when the film thickness is smaller.
Proteins often deform, dehydrate or otherwise denature when adsorbed or patterned directly onto an inorganic substrate, thus losing specificity and biofunctionality. One method used to maintain function is to pattern the protein of interest directly onto another underlying protein or polypeptide that acts as a buffer layer between the substrate and the desired protein. We have used microcontact printing (μcp) to cross-stamp orthogonal linear arrays of two different proteins (e.g., IgG, poly-lysine, protein A) onto glass substrates. This created three separate types of protein-substrate microenvironments, including crossover structures of protein one on protein two. We report preliminary fluorescent microscopy and scanning force microscopy characterization of these structures, including commonly encountered structural defects.
Poly-crystal ZnO films with c-axis (002) orientation have been successfully grown on the lead-based ceramic substrates by r.f. magnetron sputtering technique. The deposited films were characterized as a function of deposition time and argon-oxygen gas flow ratio. Crystalline structures of the films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Highly oriented films with c-axis normal to the substrates can be obtained by depositing under a total pressure of 10mTorr containing 50% argon and 50% oxygen and r.f. power of 70W for 3 hours. The phase velocity, electromechanical coupling coefficient and temperature coefficient of frequency of SAW device with ZnO/IDT/PT-ceramic structure were investigated. It shows that the preferred oriented ZnO film is beneficial for improving the electromechanical coupling coefficient of SAW device.
For the purpose of developing the corrosion-resistant and low-cost metallic bipolar plates for direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC), Ti mesh, stainless steel and Si(100) were coated with TiN by using the filtered cathodic vacuum arc system (FCVA). These TiN films have received considerable attention because of its high anti-corrosion behavior and low contact-resistance. In order to improve the corrosion protective ability of TiN films and decrease pinholes of coating, growth modifications such as thickness of the coatings and bias applied to substrates have also been carried out. The microstructures and composition of TiN film were identified by the instrumental analyses such as scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The corrosion behavior of TiN coatings was studied in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by using potentiodynamic polarization method. The DC bias of −150 V was applied to the substrates to achieve a dense structure of approximately 400 nm coating of TiN, so that good corrosion protection of the Ti mesh and stainless steel substrates can be achieved. The TiN coating on stainless steel exhibited excellent corrosion behavior especially in lower corrosion current than 2×10−7 A/cm2.
Ion beam synthesis of nanoclusters is studied via both kinetic Monte Carlo simulations and the self-consistent mean-field solution to a set of coupled rate equations. Both approaches predict a steady-state shape for the cluster size distribution that depends only on a characteristic length determined by the ratio of the effective diffusion coefficient times the effective solubility to the ion flux. The average cluster size in the steady state regime is determined by the implanted species/matrix interface energy.