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To describe diet quality (Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) and Healthy Eating Index 2015 (HEI-2015)) according to self-reported cannabis use among the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) adult participants.
Utilizing cross-sectional data, we assessed diet quality with up to two 24-h diet recalls from NHANES participants. Usual intakes were estimated via the multivariate Markov Chain–Monte Carlo method. Diet quality scores were compared among never users, previous users and current users of cannabis.
NHANES surveys from 2005 to 2016.
Adult NHANES participants (17 855) aged 20–59 years with valid data for dietary recalls and drug use questionnaires.
Current adult cannabis users (ages 20–59 years) had significantly lower total diet quality (HEI-2010) scores (51·8 ± 0·7) compared with previous (56·2 ± 0·4) and never users (57·7 ± 0·4). Similar differences in total and individual HEI-2015 scores were observed. For the HEI-2015 scores, cannabis users had a significantly higher (better) sodium scores (4·1 ± 0·2) compared with never users (3·3 ± 0·1) and previous users (3·2 ± 0·1). Cannabis users scored lower compared with never users on total vegetables (3·1 ± 0·1 v. 3·7 ± 0·0), total fruit (2·1 ± 0·1 v. 3·0 ± 0·1) and whole fruit (2·2 ± 0·1 v. 3·3 ± 0·1) for the HEI-2015 index.
Current cannabis users’ usual intakes reflect lower diet quality compared with never or previous users, particularly lower subcomponent scores of total vegetables, greens and beans, total fruit and whole fruit. Cannabis users should increase their intake of fruit and vegetables to improve overall diet quality.
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