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At present, analysis of diet and bladder cancer (BC) is mostly based on the intake of individual foods. The examination of food combinations provides a scope to deal with the complexity and unpredictability of the diet and aims to overcome the limitations of the study of nutrients and foods in isolation. This article aims to demonstrate the usability of supervised data mining methods to extract the food groups related to BC. In order to derive key food groups associated with BC risk, we applied the data mining technique C5.0 with 10-fold cross-validation in the BLadder cancer Epidemiology and Nutritional Determinants study, including data from eighteen case–control and one nested case–cohort study, compromising 8320 BC cases out of 31 551 participants. Dietary data, on the eleven main food groups of the Eurocode 2 Core classification codebook, and relevant non-diet data (i.e. sex, age and smoking status) were available. Primarily, five key food groups were extracted; in order of importance, beverages (non-milk); grains and grain products; vegetables and vegetable products; fats, oils and their products; meats and meat products were associated with BC risk. Since these food groups are corresponded with previously proposed BC-related dietary factors, data mining seems to be a promising technique in the field of nutritional epidemiology and deserves further examination.
Carrot weevil, Listronotus oregonensis (LeConte) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), is a pest of carrot (Daucus carota var. sativus Hoffmann; Apiaceae) throughout eastern Canada. Carrot weevil emergence and oviposition were monitored in commercial carrot fields in Nova Scotia. Cumulative degree days were calculated using a base temperature of 7 °C (DD7), and models were developed to predict cumulative emergence and oviposition using nonlinear regression. Cumulative emergence and oviposition were adequately explained as functions of DD7 by a three-parameter sigmoidal Hill equation. Our emergence model predicted initial and peak adult emergence at 35 and 387 DD7, respectively, with oviposition on carrot baits occurring as early as 42 DD7. Models were then validated to evaluate how well they performed. Oviposition on carrot plants began at the fourth true-leaf stage (342 DD7) and continued until eleventh true-leaf stage. Growers using these models can identify their window of opportunity to manage their carrot weevil populations targeting the majority of emerged adults before oviposition begins in the field.
Hospital shootings (Code Silver) are events that pose extreme risk to staff, patients, and visitors. Hospitals are faced with unique challenges to train staff and develop protocols to manage these high-risk events. In situ simulation is an innovative technique that can evaluate institutional responses to emergent situations. This study highlights the design of an active shooter in situ simulation conducted at a Canadian level-1 trauma center to test a Code Silver active shooter protocol response. We further apply a modified framework analysis to extract latent safety threats (LSTs) from the simulation using ethnographic observation of the response by law enforcement, hospital security, logistics, and medical personnel.
The video-based framework analysis identified 110 LSTs, which were assigned hazard scores, highlighting 3 high-risk LSTs that did not have effective control measures or were not easily discoverable. These included lack of security during patient transport, inadequate situational awareness outside the clinical area, and poor coordination of critical tasks among interprofessional team members. In situ simulation is a novel approach to support the design and implementation of similar events at other institutions. Findings from ethnographic observations and a video-based analysis form a structured framework to address safety, logistical, and medical response considerations.
Experimental and numerical studies over the past two decades indicate that as the Reynolds number becomes large the turbulent boundary layer is increasingly composed of zones of uniform streamwise momentum, segregated by narrow regions of high shear. Recent experimental evidence suggests that passive scalar fields (for example, temperature) in turbulent boundary layers at high Reynolds number show similar characteristics; namely, large uniform temperature zones (UTZs) separated by narrow regions of high gradient, which we term thermal fissures (TFs). Herein, a model informed by analysis of the mean scalar transport equation, and that leverages the dynamical model recently developed by the authors (Cuevas Bautista et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 858, 2019, pp. 609–633), is formulated to predict passive scalar transport using the UTZ/TF concept. First, a finite number of TFs are distributed across the boundary layer. In analogy with the aforementioned dynamical model, the wall-normal positions of the TFs and their characteristic temperatures are then perturbed to generate independent ensembles, from which statistical moments are computed. The model successfully reproduces the statistical profiles of the temperature field as well as the streamwise turbulent heat flux. Lastly, the Prandtl number dependency of the empirically chosen parameters is investigated. It is concluded that the higher-order statistics, especially the kurtosis, produced by the model are sensitive to the Prandtl number, while the mean temperature and turbulent heat flux do not show noticeable Prandtl number dependency.
The mean dynamics in oscillatory channel flow is examined to investigate the dynamical mechanisms underlying the transition to turbulence in oscillatory wall-bounded flow. The analyses employ direct numerical simulation data acquired at three Stokes Reynolds numbers:
, 801 and 1009, where the lower
flow is transitional over the entire cycle and the two higher
flows exhibit flow characteristics similar to steady turbulent wall-bounded flow during part of the cycle. The flow evolution over a half-period of oscillation for all three
is as follows: near-wall streamwise velocity streaks develop during the early accelerating portion of the cycle; then at some later point in the cycle that depends on
, the near-wall streaks breakdown (demarking the onset of the nonlinear development stage), and the near-wall Reynolds stress grows explosively; the Reynolds stress remains elevated for part of the cycle before diminishing (yet remaining finite) during the late decelerating portion of the cycle. This process is then repeated indefinitely. The present findings demonstrate that transition to turbulence occurs when the nonlinear development stage begins during the accelerating portion of the cycle. This crucially leads to the diminishing importance of the centreline momentum source, the emergence of a locally accelerating/decelerating internal layer centred about the edge of the Stokes layer and the wall-normal rearrangement of the mean forces prior to the start of the decelerating portion of the cycle. The rearrangement of mean forces culminates in a four layer structure in the mean balance of forces. This is significant on a number of accounts since empirical and theoretical evidence suggests that the formation of a four layer structure is an important characteristic of a self-similar hierarchal structure that underlies logarithmic dependence of the mean velocity profile in steady turbulent wall-bounded flows (Klewicki et al., J. Fluid Mech., vol. 638, 2009, pp. 73–93). When the nonlinear development stage begins during the decelerating portion of the cycle (i.e. at
), a four layer structure is not observed in the mean balance of forces and the flow remains weakly transitional over the entire cycle.
Although restricting formal voting rights—voter suppression—is not uncommon in democracies, its incidence and form vary widely. Intuitively, when competing elites believe that the benefits of reducing voting by opponents outweigh the costs of voter suppression, it is more likely to occur. Internal political and state capacity and external actors, however, influence the form that voter suppression takes. When elites competing for office lack the ability to enact laws restricting voting due to limited internal capacity, or external actors are able to limit the ability of governments to use laws to suppress voting, suppression is likely to be ad hoc, decentralized, and potentially violent. As political and state capacity increase and external constraints decrease, voter suppression will shift from decentralized and potentially violent to centralized and mostly non-violent. We illustrate our arguments by analyzing the transition from decentralized, violent voter suppression through the use of lynchings (and associated violence) to the centralized, less violent suppression of black voting in the post-Reconstruction South. We also place the most recent wave of U.S. state voter suppression laws into broader context using our theoretical framework.
Streamwise velocity profiles and their wall-normal derivatives were used to investigate the properties of turbulent channel flow in the low polymer drag reduction
), as realized via polymer injection at the channel surface. Streamwise velocity data were obtained over a friction Reynolds number ranging from
using the single-velocity-component version of molecular tagging velocimetry (1c-MTV). This adaptation of the MTV technique has the ability to accurately capture instantaneous profiles at very high spatial resolution (
data points per wall-normal profile), and thus generate well-resolved derivative information as well. Owing to this ability, the present study is able to build upon and extend the recent numerical simulation analysis of White et al. (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 834, 2018, pp. 409–433) that examined the mean dynamical structure of polymer drag-reduced channel flow at friction Reynolds numbers up to
. Consistently, the present mean velocity profiles indicate that the extent of the logarithmic region diminishes with increasing polymer concentration, while statistically significant increases in the logarithmic profile slope begin to occur for drag reductions less than
. Profiles of the r.m.s. streamwise velocity indicate that the maximum moves farther from the wall and increases in magnitude with reductions in drag. Similarly, with increasing drag reduction, the profile of the combined Reynolds and polymer shear stress exhibits a decrease in its maximum value that also moves farther from the wall. Correlations are presented that estimate the location and value of the maximum r.m.s. streamwise velocity and combined Reynolds and polymer shear stress. Over the range of
investigated, these effects consistently exhibit approximately linear trends as a function of
. The present measurements allow reconstruction of the mean momentum balance (MMB) for channel flow, which provides further insights regarding the physics described in the study by White et al. In particular, the present findings support a physical scenario in which the self-similar properties on the inertial domain identified from the leading-order structure of the MMB begin to detectably and continuously vary for drag reductions less than
Recent studies reveal that at large friction Reynolds number
the inertially dominated region of the turbulent boundary layer is composed of large-scale zones of nearly uniform momentum segregated by narrow fissures of concentrated vorticity. Experiments show that, when scaled by the boundary-layer thickness, the fissure thickness is
, while the dimensional jump in streamwise velocity across each fissure scales in proportion to the friction velocity
. A simple model that exploits these essential elements of the turbulent boundary-layer structure at large
is developed. First, a master wall-normal profile of streamwise velocity is constructed by placing a discrete number of fissures across the boundary layer. The number of fissures and their wall-normal locations follow scalings informed by analysis of the mean momentum equation. The fissures are then randomly displaced in the wall-normal direction, exchanging momentum as they move, to create an instantaneous velocity profile. This process is repeated to generate ensembles of streamwise velocity profiles from which statistical moments are computed. The modelled statistical profiles are shown to agree remarkably well with those acquired from direct numerical simulations of turbulent channel flow at large
. In particular, the model robustly reproduces the empirically observed sub-Gaussian behaviour for the skewness and kurtosis profiles over a large range of input parameters.
Lucy Arbell (1878–1947) assumed an important position in Massenet's compositional process and output. Beginning with Ariane in 1906, he wrote principal or secondary roles for the singer in all of his operas, as well as the celebrated song cycle Expressions lyriques (1909–1911). Despite Massenet's admiration, the French contralto was received ambivalently by critics and she fell into oblivion soon after his death. For some, her talents as an actress could not make up for the mediocre quality of her voice. Drawing on unpublished and hitherto unknown archival documents, this article explores Arbell's career, which has been largely overlooked by scholars. I reveal how her career's evolution was intimately connected to the professional and sentimental relationship between singer and composer. Massenet notably wrote roles for her that included extensive use of spoken declamation, which sets them apart in the history of opera.
Prior research demonstrates that responses to surveys can vary depending on the race, gender, or ethnicity of the investigator asking the question. We build upon this research by empirically testing how information about researcher identity in online surveys affects subject responses. We do so by conducting an experiment on Amazon’s Mechanical Turk in which we vary the name of the researcher in the advertisement for the experiment and on the informed consent page in order to cue different racial and gender identities. We fail to reject the null hypothesis that there is no difference in how respondents answer questions when assigned to a putatively black/white or male/female researcher.
We present the first data release of the SkyMapper Southern Survey, a hemispheric survey carried out with the SkyMapper Telescope at Siding Spring Observatory in Australia. Here, we present the survey strategy, data processing, catalogue construction, and database schema. The first data release dataset includes over 66 000 images from the Shallow Survey component, covering an area of 17 200 deg2 in all six SkyMapper passbands uvgriz, while the full area covered by any passband exceeds 20 000 deg2. The catalogues contain over 285 million unique astrophysical objects, complete to roughly 18 mag in all bands. We compare our griz point-source photometry with Pan-STARRS1 first data release and note an RMS scatter of 2%. The internal reproducibility of SkyMapper photometry is on the order of 1%. Astrometric precision is better than 0.2 arcsec based on comparison with Gaia first data release. We describe the end-user database, through which data are presented to the world community, and provide some illustrative science queries.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: To create a searchable public registry of all Quality Improvement (QI) projects. To incentivize the medical professionals at UF Health to initiate quality improvement projects by reducing startup burden and providing a path to publishing results. To reduce the review effort performed by the internal review board on projects that are quality improvement Versus research. To foster publication of completed quality improvement projects. To assist the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety in managing quality improvement across the hospital system. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This project used a variant of the spiral software development model and principles from the ADDIE instructional design process for the creation of a registry that is web based. To understand the current registration process and management of quality projects in the UF Health system a needs assessment was performed with the UF Health Sebastian Ferrero Office of Clinical Quality & Patient Safety to gather project requirements. Biweekly meetings were held between the Quality Improvement office and the Clinical and Translational Science – Informatics and Technology teams during the entire project. Our primary goal was to collect just enough information to answer the basic questions of who is doing which QI project, what department are they from, what are the most basic details about the type of project and who is involved. We also wanted to create incentive in the user group to try to find an existing project to join or to commit the details of their proposed new project to a data registry for others to find to reduce the amount of duplicate QI projects. We created a series of design templates for further customization and feature discovery. We then proceed with the development of the registry using a Python web development framework called Django, which is a technology that powers Pinterest and the Washington Post Web sites. The application is broken down into 2 main components (i) data input, where information is collected from clinical staff, Nurses, Pharmacists, Residents, and Doctors on what quality improvement projects they intend to complete and (ii) project registry, where completed or “registered” projects can be viewed and searched publicly. The registry consists of a quality investigator profile that lists contact information, expertise, and areas of interest. A dashboard allows for the creation and review of quality improvement projects. A search function enables certain quality project details to be publicly accessible to encourage collaboration. We developed the Registry Matching Algorithm which is based on the Jaccard similarity coefficient that uses quality project features to find similar quality projects. The algorithm allows for quality investigators to find existing or previous quality improvement projects to encourage collaboration and to reduce repeat projects. We also developed the QIPR Approver Algorithm that guides the investigator through a series of questions that allows an appropriate quality project to get approved to start without the need for human intervention. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A product of this project is an open source software package that is freely available on GitHub for distribution to other health systems under the Apache 2.0 open source license. Adoption of the Quality Improvement Project Registry and promotion of it to the intended audience are important factors for the success of this registry. Thanks goes to the UW-Madison and their QI/Program Evaluation Self-Certification Tool (https://uwmadison.co1.qualtrics.com/SE/?SID=SV_3lVeNuKe8FhKc73) used as example and inspiration for this project. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This registry was created to help understand the impact of improved management of quality projects in a hospital system. The ultimate result will be to reduce time to approve quality improvement projects, increase collaboration across the UF Health Hospital system, reduce redundancy of quality improvement projects and translate more projects into publications.
This article compares the Australian and Chinese adult guardianship systems, and considers whether there is potential for drawing on some (or many) aspects of the Australian model for the Chinese legal framework. Australia has a well-developed guardianship framework that provides mechanisms for making healthcare decisions when an adult is no longer able to do so. This framework has evolved over many years and, in some cases, individuals can decide about medical treatment in advance of the situation arising, or who should be the decision-maker if he or she later loses capacity. The current Chinese legal framework, on the other hand, is a fragmented one and comprises laws that were not designed to deal with how healthcare decisions can be made for a person without capacity. This article outlines the legal framework in both jurisdictions and considers whether, having regard to the fact that these two countries have different values and cultures, there are features of the Australian guardianship system that could inform the development of Chinese law.
Vegetation affects feedbacks in Earth's hydrologic system, but is constrained by physiological adaptations. In extant ecosystems, the mechanisms controlling plant water used can be measured experimentally; for extinct plants in the recent geological past, water use can be inferred from nearest living relatives, assuming minimal evolutionary change. In deep time, where no close living relatives exist, fossil material provides the only information for inferring plant water use. However, mechanistic models for extinct plant water use must be built on first principles and tested on extant plants. Plants serve as a conduit for water movement from the soil to the atmosphere, constrained by tissue-level construction and gross architecture. No single feature, such as stomata or veins, encompasses enough of the complexity underpinning water-use physiology to serve as the basis of a model of functional water use in all (or perhaps any) extinct plants. Rather, a “functional whole plant” model must be used. To understand the interplay between plant and atmosphere, water use in relation to environmental conditions is investigated in an extinct plant, the seed fern Medullosa ((Division Pteridospermatophyta), by reviewing methods for reconstructing physiological variables such as leaf and stem hydraulic capacity, photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and albedo. Medullosans had the potential for extremely high photosynthetic and assimilation rates, water transport, stomatal conductance, and transpiration—rates comparable to later angiosperms. When these high growth and gas exchange rates of medullosans are combined with the unique atmospheric gas composition of the late Paleozoic atmosphere, complex vegetation-environmental feedbacks are expected despite their basal phylogenetic position relative to post-Paleozoic seed plants.
Physical violence is a frequent occurrence in acute community psychiatry units worldwide. Violent acts by patients cause many direct injuries and significantly degrade quality of care. The most accurate tools for predicting near-term violence on acute units rely on current clinical features rather than demographic risk factors. The efficacy of risk assessment strategies to lower incidence of violence on acute units is unknown. A range of behavioral and psychopharmacologic treatments have been shown to reduce violence among psychiatric inpatients.