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To assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with mental and physical health issues among college students.
An online survey was administered. Food insecurity was assessed using the ten-item Adult Food Security Survey Module. Sleep was measured using the nineteen-item Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Mental health and physical health were measured using three items from the Healthy Days Core Module. Multivariate logistic regression was conducted to assess the relationship between food insecurity, sleep quality, and days with poor mental and physical health.
Twenty-two higher education institutions.
College students (n 17 686) enrolled at one of twenty-two participating universities.
Compared with food-secure students, those classified as food insecure (43·4 %) had higher PSQI scores indicating poorer sleep quality (P < 0·0001) and reported more days with poor mental (P < 0·0001) and physical (P < 0·0001) health as well as days when mental and physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (P < 0·0001). Food-insecure students had higher adjusted odds of having poor sleep quality (adjusted OR (AOR): 1·13; 95 % CI 1·12, 1·14), days with poor physical health (AOR: 1·01; 95 % CI 1·01, 1·02), days with poor mental health (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·03) and days when poor mental or physical health prevented them from completing daily activities (AOR: 1·03; 95 % CI 1·02, 1·04).
College students report high food insecurity which is associated with poor mental and physical health, and sleep quality. Multi-level policy changes and campus wellness programmes are needed to prevent food insecurity and improve student health-related outcomes.
Of all the long-lived particles available as probes of condensed
matter, and of all the signals available on a modern electron
microscope, electron nanodiffraction patterns provide the strongest
signal from the smallest volume. The technique is therefore perfectly
suited to nanostructural investigations in inorganic chemistry and
materials science. The Vacuum Generators HB501S, an ultrahigh vacuum
(UHV) variant of the HB501 scanning transmission electron microscope
(STEM), with side-entry double-tilt stage, specimen preparation and
analysis chamber, three postspecimen lenses, and cold field-emission
tip with integral magnetic gun lens, has therefore been modified to
optimize nanodiffraction and quantitative convergent beam electron
diffraction (QCBED) performance. A one-micrometer grain-size phosphor
screen lying on a fiber-optic faceplate atop the instrument is
fiber-optically coupled to a 2048 × 2048 charge-coupled device
(CCD), 16-bit camera. This arrangement promises to provide much greater
sensitivity, larger dynamic range, and a better modulation transfer
function (MTF) than conventional single crystal scintillator (YAG) CCD
systems, with noticeable absence of cross talk between pixels. The
design of the nanodiffraction detector system is discussed, the gain of
the detector is measured, the spherical aberration constant of the
objective lens is measured by the Ronchigram method, and preliminary
results from the modified instrument are shown.
PET studies of verbal fluency in schizophrenia report a failure of ‘deactivation’ of left superior temporal gyrus (STG) in the presence of activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), which deficit has been attributed to underlying ‘functional disconnectivity’.
To test whether these findings provide trait-markers for schizophrenia.
We used H215O PET to examine verbal fluency in 10 obligate carriers of the predisposition to schizophrenia, 10 stable patients and 10 normal controls.
We found no evidence of a failure of left STG deactivation in carriers or patients. Instead, patients failed to deactivate the precuneus relative to other groups. We found no differences in functional connectivity between left DLPFC and left STG but patients exhibited significant disconnectivity between left DLPFC and anterior cingulate cortex.
Failure of left STG ‘deactivation’ and left fronto-temporal disconnectivity are not consistent findings in schizophrenia; neither are they trait-markers for genetic risk. Prefrontal functional disconnectivity here may characterise the schizophrenic phenotype.
Positron emission tomography (PET) studies have revealed functional left superior temporal gyrus (STG) abnormalities in symptomatic schizophrenia during word generation.
To discover if this dysfunction is present in asymptomatic schizophrenia. To determine whether, without concurrent symptomatology, schizophrenia and bipolar affective disorder (BPD) are distinguishable by differing regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) patterns during word generation.
A PETverbal fluency protocol was applied to six patients with BPD in remission and six patients with asymptomatic schizophrenia. Analysis included 10 control subjects from a contemporaneous study.
All groups showed relative reduction of rCBF in both superior temporal cortices. There were no quantitative differences in any group comparison. All groups exhibited negative covariation between rCBF in left prefrontal and right (but not left) temporal regions.
Abnormal patterns of left STG function cannot be regarded as a trait marker for schizophrenia. Functional abnormalities may reflect aspects of mental state.
Formal thought disorder is a characteristic feature of psychosis, but little is known of its pathophysiology. We have investigated this in schizophrenia using positron emission tomography (PET).
Regional cerebral blood flow was measured using H215O and PET while six people with schizophrenia were describing a series of 12 ambiguous pictures which elicited different degrees of thought-disordered speech. In a within-subject design, the severity of positive thought disorder was correlated with cerebral blood flow across the 12 scans in each subject.
Verbal disorganisation (‘positive’ thought disorder) was inversely correlated with activity in the inferior frontal, cingulate and left superior temporal cortex, and positively correlated with activity in the parahippocampal/anterior fusiform region bilaterally, and in the body of the right caudate (P<0.001). The total amount of speech produced (independent of thought disorder) was positively correlated with activity in the left inferior frontal and left superior temporal cortex.
The severity of positive thought disorder was inversely correlated with activity in areas implicated in the regulation and monitoring of speech production. Reduced activity in these regions may contribute to the articulation of the linguistic anomalies that characterise positive thought disorder. The positive correlations between positive thought disorder and parahippocampal/anterior fusiform activity may reflect this regions role in the processing of linguistic anomalies.
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