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With generous support from the National Science Foundation, we have spent the past four years developing an archaeological radiocarbon database for the United States. Here, we highlight the importance of spatial data for open-access, national-scale archaeological databases and the development of paleodemography research. We propose a new method for analyzing radiocarbon time series in the context of paleoclimate models. This method forces us to confront one of the central challenges to realizing the full potential of national-scale databases: the quality of the spatial data accompanying radiocarbon dates. We seek to open a national discussion on the use of spatial data in open-source archaeological databases.
The role of aromatherapy in supportive symptom management for pediatric patients receiving palliative care has been underexplored. This pilot study aimed to measure the impact of aromatherapy using validated child-reported nausea, pain, and mood scales 5 minutes and 60 minutes after aromatherapy exposure.
The 3 intervention arms included use of a symptom-specific aromatherapy sachet scent involving deep breathing. The parallel default control arm (for those children with medical exclusion criteria to aromatherapy) included use of a visual imagery picture envelope and deep breathing. Symptom burden was sequentially assessed at 5 and 60 minutes using the Baxter Retching Faces scale for nausea, the Wong-Baker FACES scale for pain, and the Children's Anxiety and Pain Scale (CAPS) for anxious mood. Ninety children or adolescents (mean age 9.4 years) at a free-standing children's hospital in the United States were included in each arm (total n = 180).
At 5 minutes, there was a mean improvement of 3/10 (standard deviation [SD] 2.21) on the nausea scale; 2.6/10 (SD 1.83) on the pain scale; and 1.6/5 (SD 0.93) on the mood scale for the aromatherapy cohort (p < 0.0001). Symptom burden remained improved at 60 minutes post-intervention (<0.0001). Visual imagery with deep breathing improved self-reports of symptoms but was not as consistently sustained at 60 minutes.
Significance of results
Aromatherapy represents an implementable supportive care intervention for pediatric patients receiving palliative care consults for symptom burden. The high number of children disqualified from the aromatherapy arm because of pulmonary or allergy indications warrants further attention to outcomes for additional breathing-based integrative modalities.
Increasing longevity and the strain on state and occupational pensions have brought into question long-held assumptions about the age of retirement, and raised the prospect of a workplace populated by ageing workers. In the United Kingdom the default retirement age has gone, incremental increases in state pension age are being implemented and ageism has been added to workplace anti-discrimination laws. These changes are yet to bring about the anticipated transformation in workplace demographics, but it is coming, making it timely to ask if the workplace is ready for the ageing worker and how the extension of working life will be managed. We report findings from qualitative case studies of five large organisations located in the United Kingdom. Interviews and focus groups were conducted with employees, line managers, occupational health staff and human resources managers. Our findings reveal a high degree of uncertainty and ambivalence among workers and managers regarding the desirability and feasibility of extending working life; wide variations in how older workers are managed within workplaces; a gap between policies and practices; and evidence that while casualisation might be experienced negatively by younger workers, it may be viewed positively by financially secure older workers seeking flexibility. We conclude with a discussion of the challenges facing employers and policy makers in making the modern workplace fit for the ageing worker.
This article explores the social interactions of immigration, occupation, and wealth in two urban industrial cities of nineteenth-century New England that were largely built upon, and shaped by, immigration: the very rapidly growing factory town of Holyoke, Massachusetts, and a more mixed-market and steadily growing nearby community of Northampton, Massachusetts. Both communities were emergent, rapidly industrializing, inland cities, providing a quite distinct immigration context than large established cities of the East Coast. Both were destinations for the same general ethnic immigration waves over the late nineteenth century, but with very different, and differently impacted, social spaces into which immigrants arrived. Contrasting and considering both these emergent cities allows us to ascertain the extent to which the occupational distribution and accumulation of wealth by immigrant groups supports the broad pattern of nineteenth-century assimilation, and reveals ways in which other migration processes may have been at odds, or intertwined, with the long-term historical assimilation of immigrants in such communities. Our findings support a traditional assimilationist perspective in emergent urban-industrial centers. However, they also reveal the role of universal immiseration in an industrial city dual-labor market in facilitating or forcing assimilation, the temporal advantages for ethnic groups of arriving early in growing settlements, and the more individualistic nature of economic enclaves in gaining advantages over time that did not manifest across broad immigrant or occupational groups.
The study of ethnicity has long been shaped by a conflict between two broad positions, one of which may be called the circumstantialist or instrumentalist position, and the other the primordialist or affectivist position. The primordialists view ethnic sentiments as something existing prior to and not dependent on goal-oriented behavior and hence not subject to calculation. The circumstantialists, however, view ethnicity as a product of particular circumstances in which contingent groups, usually at the behest of elites within those groups, broaden and reconceptualize their particular group interests as being derived from a common primordial substance, thus generating ethnicity. These circumstantialist or instrumentalist arguments as a rule assume that the particular circumstances where such group redefinitions and extensions prove useful are either unique to, or at least much more common in, the modern age. Thus the circumstantialist approach usually implies a modernist one.
Control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in soybean with glyphosate (900 g ai ha−1) plus saflufenacil (25 gaiha−1) has been variable. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of GR horseweed height, density, and time of day (TOD) at application on saflufenacil plus glyphosate efficacy in soybean. All experiments were completed six times during a 2 yr period (2014, 2015) in fields previously confirmed with GR horseweed. Applications from 0900 to 2100 hours provided optimal control of GR horseweed 8 WAA. Soybean yield paralleled GR horseweed control with the highest yield of 3000kgha−1 at 1500 hours, and the lowest yield of 2400kgha−1 at 0600 hours. The height and density of GR horseweed at application had minimal effect on saflufenacil efficacy. Saflufenacil provided>99% control of GR horseweed when applied to small plants and low densities; however, control decreased to 95% when>25 cm tall, and to 96% in densities>800 plants m−2 at 6 WAA due to some plant regrowth. TOD of application had a greater influence on GR horseweed control with saflufenacil than height or density. To optimize control of GR horseweed, saflufenacil should be applied during daytime hours to small plants at low densities. Optimizing GR horseweed control minimizes weed seed return and weed interference.
The control of glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed (Conyza canadensis) in soybean has been variable with glyphosate plus saflufenacil. The objective of this research was to determine the biologically effective rate (BER) of saflufenacil, saflufenacil mixed with glyphosate, and metribuzin mixed with saflufenacil and glyphosate applied preplant (PP) for the control of GR horseweed in no-till soybean; a study was conducted to determine each of the three treatments. For each study, seven field sites infested with GR horseweed were used over a 2-yr period (2014, 2015). Saflufenacil alone at 25 and 36 g ai ha–1 provided 90 and 95% control of GR Horseweed 8 wk after application, while the BER to achieve 98% control was outside of the treatment range tested. The saflufenacil plus glyphosate (900 g ai ha–1) BER experiment found less saflufenacil was required as 25, 34, and 47 g ha–1 provided 90, 95, and 98% control of GR horseweed respectively. The metribuzin BER experiment found 61, 261, and 572 g ha–1 was required to provide 90, 95 and 98% control of GR horseweed, respectively, mixed with saflufenacil (25 g ha–1) and glyphosate (900 g ha–1). The addition of metribuzin with the recommended rate of saflufenacil (25 g ha–1) plus glyphosate improved control and a second effective herbicide mode of action for the control of GR horseweed. The use of a threeway herbicide mixture can be an effective weed management strategy to control GR horseweed in soybean.
Halosulfuron-methyl, a sulfonylurea herbicide, was registered for broadleaf weed control in dry bean. This herbicide has an adequate margin of crop safety in white bean, but causes unacceptable injury to adzuki bean. Halosulfuron-methyl absorption, translocation, and metabolism were evaluated in white and adzuki bean using radiolabeled herbicide to determine if differences in these parameters could explain the difference in crop safety between these two species. Adzuki bean had more rapid halosulfuron-methyl absorption than white bean. Adzuki bean reached 90% absorption (t90) 26.2 h after treatment (HAT), whereas white bean required 40.1 HAT to reach t90. The maximum halosulfuron-methyl absorption was higher in adzuki bean (75.7%) than in white bean (65.3%). More 14C-halosulfuron was translocated to the apex, first trifoliate, stem above the treated leaf, and roots in aduzki bean than in white bean. The maximum radioactivity translocated out of treated leaf was higher in adzuki bean (17.7%) than in white bean (12.1%). Halosulfuron-methyl was broken down to the same metabolites in white and adzuki bean. The half-life of halosulfuron-methyl in adzuki bean was 16 HAT, compared with less than 6 HAT in white bean. More herbicide remained as the free acid in adzuki bean compared with white bean over the entire 48-h time course. The differential tolerance of white and adzuki bean to halosulfuron can be attributed to greater absorption and translocation and decreased metabolism in adzuki bean.
While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES and their preferences for AES design beyond 2020 across different understandings of landscape stewardship. Forty semi-structured interviews were conducted with similar proportions of small holders, medium holders and large holders in southwest Devon, UK. Overall, respondents most frequently cited concerns related to the reduced amount of funding available for entry-level and higher-level stewardship schemes in the UK since 2008, changing funding priorities, perceived overstrict compliance and lack of support for farm succession and new entrants into farming. However, there were differences in concerns across understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged in preferences for AES design beyond 2020. We adapted a collaborative and coordinated approach for designing AES to account for the differing interests of land managers based on their understanding of landscape stewardship. We discuss the implications of this approach for environmental policy design in the European Union and elsewhere.
In the late nineteenth century in France, a division arose between two concepts of poetry: poetry as a distinct form of expression, and poetry as a distinct form of perception. In the former the musicality of the poem was a primary feature: in the latter the aural value of the text was relatively unimportant.
Surrealism as a full-blown artistic movement, or, as many of its exponents preferred to see it, a full-blown way of life, was very much a French product. The line of descent from Jarry’s Ubu (1896), via the self-conscious modernism of Apollinaire and Blaise Cendrars, to the Dadaist activities of 1916 represents the continuation of that semi-official anti-culture which had existed throughout nineteenth-century France. With the destruction of the officially sanctioned culture of Nationalism and Catholic conformism in the débâcle of the First World War, there was a sudden vacuum in French intellectual circles which the anti-culture was quite ready to fill. In the words of an early member of the movement, Roger Vailland: ‘Surrealism was not a literary school. It was above all a common ground and meeting-place for young petit-bourgeois intellectuals particularly aware of the futility of every activity expected of them by their background and their era’.