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We implemented universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was <0.5%, and suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. While our protocol was resource-intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
Implementation scientists increasingly recognize that the process of implementation is dynamic, leading to ad hoc modifications that may challenge fidelity in protocol-driven interventions. However, limited attention to ad hoc modifications impairs investigators’ ability to develop evidence-based hypotheses about how such modifications may impact intervention effectiveness and cost. We propose a multi-method process map methodology to facilitate the systematic data collection necessary to characterize ad hoc modifications that may impact primary intervention outcomes.
We employ process maps (drawn from systems science), as well as focus groups and semi-structured interviews (drawn from social sciences) to investigate ad hoc modifications. Focus groups are conducted with the protocol’s developers and/or planners (the implementation team) to characterize the protocol “as envisioned,” while interviews conducted with frontline administrators characterize the process “as realized in practice.” Process maps with both samples are used to identify when modifications occurred across a protocol-driven intervention. A case study investigating a multistage screening protocol for autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is presented to illustrate application and utility of the multi-method process maps.
In this case study, frontline administrators reported ad hoc modifications that potentially influenced the primary study outcome (e.g., time to ASD diagnosis). Ad hoc modifications occurred to accommodate (1) whether providers and/or parents were concerned about ASD, (2) perceptions of parental readiness to discuss ASD, and (3) perceptions of family service delivery needs and priorities.
Investigation of ad hoc modifications on primary outcomes offers new opportunities to develop empirically based adaptive interventions. Routine reporting standards are critical to provide full transparency when studying ad hoc modifications.
Interoceptive deficits (ID) have been associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) and suicidal behavior in multiple studies. Many of these studies are limited in scope, and have not fully examined possible mechanisms explaining how ID affect suicidal behavior.
This study assesses how self-reported ID relate to suicide ideation and attempts in six distinct and geographically diverse samples of adults (n = 2706) and one sample of adolescents (n = 436). Participants responded to a variety of self-report questionnaires and interviews.
Contrary to our hypothesis, self-reported ID were only associated with suicidal ideation in two samples, one of which was the adolescent sample. Largely consistent with our predictions, self-reported ID exhibited an indirect effect on suicide attempts through versatility of NSSI in four of the five adult samples tested. Finally, the indirect effects of self-reported ID on suicide attempts through NSSI versatility did not act indirectly through behaviorally assessed pain tolerance.
We found that, in adults, self-reported ID are not associated with suicidal ideation, but are connected with a history of suicide attempts, through an indirect effect via NSSI. Our findings also indicate that the mechanism of action leading from self-reported ID to suicidal behavior may differ between adolescents and adults, and relate to suicidal behavior independent of pain tolerance. Clinical implications and future directions are discussed.
In the 2015 review paper ‘Petawatt Class Lasers Worldwide’ a comprehensive overview of the current status of high-power facilities of
was presented. This was largely based on facility specifications, with some description of their uses, for instance in fundamental ultra-high-intensity interactions, secondary source generation, and inertial confinement fusion (ICF). With the 2018 Nobel Prize in Physics being awarded to Professors Donna Strickland and Gerard Mourou for the development of the technique of chirped pulse amplification (CPA), which made these lasers possible, we celebrate by providing a comprehensive update of the current status of ultra-high-power lasers and demonstrate how the technology has developed. We are now in the era of multi-petawatt facilities coming online, with 100 PW lasers being proposed and even under construction. In addition to this there is a pull towards development of industrial and multi-disciplinary applications, which demands much higher repetition rates, delivering high-average powers with higher efficiencies and the use of alternative wavelengths: mid-IR facilities. So apart from a comprehensive update of the current global status, we want to look at what technologies are to be deployed to get to these new regimes, and some of the critical issues facing their development.
Based on the data from the Next Generation Virgo cluster Survey (NGVS), we statistically study the photometric properties of globular clusters (GCs), ultra-compact dwarfs (UCDs) and dwarf nuclei in the Virgo core (M87) region. We found an obvious negative color (g - z) gradient in GC system associate with M87, i.e. GCs in the outer regions are bluer. However, such color gradient does not exist in UCD system, neither in dwarf nuclei system around M87. In addition, we found that many UCDs are surrounded by extended, low surface brightness envelopes. The dwarf nuclei and UCDs show different spatial distributions from GCs, with dwarf nuclei and UCDs (especially for the UCDs with visible envelopes) lying at larger distances to the Virgo center. These results support the view that UCDs (at least for a fraction of UCDs) are more tied to dwarf nuclei than to GCs.
Good education requires student experiences that deliver lessons about practice as well as theory and that encourage students to work for the public good—especially in the operation of democratic institutions (Dewey 1923; Dewy 1938). We report on an evaluation of the pedagogical value of a research project involving 23 colleges and universities across the country. Faculty trained and supervised students who observed polling places in the 2016 General Election. Our findings indicate that this was a valuable learning experience in both the short and long terms. Students found their experiences to be valuable and reported learning generally and specifically related to course material. Postelection, they also felt more knowledgeable about election science topics, voting behavior, and research methods. Students reported interest in participating in similar research in the future, would recommend other students to do so, and expressed interest in more learning and research about the topics central to their experience. Our results suggest that participants appreciated the importance of elections and their study. Collectively, the participating students are engaged and efficacious—essential qualities of citizens in a democracy.
Three-dimensional (3D) printing has expanded beyond the mere patterned deposition of melted solids, moving into areas requiring spatially structured soft matter—typically materials composed of polymers, colloids, surfactants, or living cells. The tunable and dynamically variable rheological properties of soft matter enable the high-resolution manufacture of soft structures. These rheological properties are leveraged in 3D printing techniques that employ sacrificial inks and sacrificial support materials, which go through reversible solid–fluid transitions under modest forces or other small perturbations. Thus, a sacrificial material can be used to shape a second material into a complex 3D structure, and then discarded. Here, we review the sacrificial materials and related methods used to print soft structures. We analyze data from the literature to establish manufacturing principles of soft matter printing, and we explore printing performance within the context of instabilities controlled by the rheology of soft matter materials.
Palmer amaranth and waterhemp have become increasingly troublesome weeds throughout the United States. Both species are highly adaptable and emerge continuously throughout the summer months, presenting the need for a residual PRE application in soybean. To improve season-long control of Amaranthus spp., 19 PRE treatments were evaluated on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in 2013 and 2014 at locations in Arkansas, Indiana, Nebraska, Illinois, and Tennessee; and on glyphosate-resistant waterhemp at locations in Illinois, Missouri, and Nebraska. The two Amaranthus species were analyzed separately; data for each species were pooled across site-years, and site-year was included as a random variable in the analyses. The dissipation of weed control throughout the course of the experiments was compared among treatments with the use of regression analysis where percent weed control was described as a function of time (the number of weeks after treatment [WAT]). At the mean (i.e., average) WAT (4.3 and 3.2 WAT for Palmer amaranth and waterhemp, respectively) isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin had the highest predicted control of Palmer amaranth (98%) and waterhemp (99%). Isoxaflutole + S-metolachlor + metribuzin, S-metolachlor + mesotrione, and flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone had a predicted control ≥ 97% and similar model parameter estimates, indicating control declined at similar rates for these treatments. Dicamba and 2,4-D provided some, short-lived residual control of Amaranthus spp. When dicamba was added to metribuzin or S-metolachlor, control increased compared to dicamba alone. Flumioxazin + pyroxasulfone, a currently labeled PRE, performed similarly to treatments containing isoxaflutole or mesotrione. Additional sites of action will provide soybean growers more opportunities to control these weeds and reduce the potential for herbicide resistance.
Herbicide-resistant Amaranthus spp. continue to cause management difficulties in soybean. New soybean technologies under development, including resistance to various combinations of glyphosate, glufosinate, dicamba, 2,4-D, isoxaflutole, and mesotrione, will make possible the use of additional herbicide sites of action in soybean than is currently available. When this research was conducted, these soybean traits were still regulated and testing herbicide programs with the appropriate soybean genetics in a single experiment was not feasible. Therefore, the effectiveness of various herbicide programs (PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides) was evaluated in bare-ground experiments on glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and glyphosate-resistant waterhemp (both tall and common) at locations in Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Missouri, Nebraska, and Tennessee. Twenty-five herbicide programs were evaluated; 5 of which were PRE herbicides only, 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 3 to 4 wks after (WA) the PRE application (EPOST), and 10 were PRE herbicides followed by POST herbicides 6 to 7 WA the PRE application (LPOST). Programs with EPOST herbicides provided 94% or greater control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp at 3 to 4 WA the EPOST. Overall, programs with LPOST herbicides resulted in a period of weed emergence in which weeds would typically compete with a crop. Weeds were not completely controlled with the LPOST herbicides because weed sizes were larger (≥ 15 cm) compared with their sizes at the EPOST application (≤ 7 cm). Most programs with LPOST herbicides provided 80 to 95% control at 3 to 4 WA applied LPOST. Based on an orthogonal contrast, using a synthetic-auxin herbicide LPOST improves control of Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over programs not containing a synthetic-auxin LPOST. These results show herbicides that can be used in soybean and that contain auxinic- or HPPD-resistant traits will provide growers with an opportunity for better control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth and waterhemp over a wide range of geographies and environments.
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is a potent greenhouse gas with implication
for climate change. Agriculture accounts for 10% of all greenhouse gas
emissions in the United States, but 75% of the country's N2O
emissions. In the absence of PRE herbicides, weeds compete with soybean for
available soil moisture and inorganic N, and may reduce N2O
emissions relative to a weed-free environment. However, after weeds are
killed with a POST herbicide, the dead weed residues may stimulate
N2O emissions by increasing soil moisture and supplying carbon
and nitrogen to microbial denitrifiers. Wider soybean rows often have more
weed biomass, and as a result, row width may further impact how weeds
influence N2O emissions. To determine this relationship, field
studies were conducted in 2013 and 2014 in Arlington, WI. A two-by-two
factorial treatment structure of weed management (PRE + POST vs. POST-only)
and row width (38 or 76 cm) was arranged in a randomized complete block
design with four replications. N2O fluxes were measured from
static gas sampling chambers at least weekly starting 2 wk after planting
until mid-September, and were compared for the periods before and after weed
termination using a repeated measures analysis. N2O fluxes were
not influenced by the weed by width
interaction or width before termination, after termination,
or for the full duration of the study at P ≤ 0.05. Interestingly, we
observed that POST-only treatments had lower fluxes on the sampling day
immediately prior to POST application (P = 0.0002), but this was the only
incidence where weed influenced N2O fluxes, and
overall, average fluxes from PRE + POST and POST-only treatments were not
different for any period of the study. Soybean yield was not influenced by
width (P = 0.6018) or weed by
width (P = 0.5825), but yield was 650 kg ha−1
higher in the PRE + POST than POST-only treatments (P = 0.0007). These
results indicate that herbicide management strategy does not influence
N2O emissions from soybean, and the use of a PRE herbicide
prevents soybean yield loss.
Buckhorn plantain is a perennial weed in turfgrass and efficacy of POST herbicides is often inconsistent for control in spring. Indaziflam is a cellulose biosynthesis inhibitor used for PRE control of annual weeds in turf and applications have shown to be injurious to established buckhorn plantain. The objectives of this research were to evaluate (1) effects of indaziflam application rate and placement on buckhorn plantain injury; (2) effects of tank-mixing indaziflam with POST herbicides for buckhorn plantain control; and (3) physiological effects of indaziflam on absorption and translocation of 14C-2,4-D in buckhorn plantain. In greenhouse experiments, indaziflam reduced buckhorn plantain shoot mass 61 to 75% from the nontreated at 4 wk after treatment (WAT) and hierarchical rank of application placements were: foliar + soil ≥ soil ≥ foliar. Differences in biomass reduction from application rates (27.5 and 55 g ai ha−1) were not detected. In field experiments, indaziflam at 55 g ha−1 controlled buckhorn plantain 34% at 9 WAT but enhanced the speed of control from all herbicides tested in tank mixtures. Exclusive applications of 2,4-D or 2,4-D + dicamba + MCPP provided poor control (< 70%) of buckhorn plantain at 9 WAT, but tank mixtures with indaziflam provided 81 and 98% control, respectively. Fluroxypyr and simazine alone controlled buckhorn plantain < 38% but tank mixtures with indaziflam enhanced control more than twice as much from exclusive applications. Tank-mixing indaziflam with metsulfuron did not improve control from metsulfuron alone after 9 wk. Bermudagrass injury was not detected from any treatment. In laboratory experiments, 14C-2,4-D absorption and translocation in buckhorn plantain was similar with or without indaziflam tank mixtures at 72 and 168 h after treatment. Overall, indaziflam may improve buckhorn plantain control from POST herbicides by providing additive phytotoxicity in tank mixtures in spring.