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Previous studies indicate that “hesitation” and “skepticism” are important barriers to the development of renewable energy industries in the United States. We examine whether key pecuniary and nonpecuniary characteristics of bioenergy crops underlie the hesitation argument. Based on a stated choice experiment, we find that Midwestern producers appreciate certain crop attributes that are found in switchgrass, but not in conventional crops. We also find that producers would be willing to grow switchgrass-like crops for net margins between $222/acre/year and $247/acre/year in marginal counties. We argue that farmers’ hesitation and skepticism toward bioenergy crops can be overcome.
Little is known about practices used to disseminate findings to non-research, practitioner audiences. This study describes the perspectives, experience and activities of dissemination & implementation (D&I) scientists around disseminating their research findings.
The study explored D&I scientists’ experiences and recommendations for assessment of dissemination activities to non-research audiences. Existing list serves were used to recruit scientists. Respondents were asked three open-ended questions on an Internet survey about dissemination activities, recommendations for changing evaluation systems and suggestions to improve their own dissemination of their work.
Surveys were completed by 159 scientists reporting some training, funding and/or publication history in D&I. Three themes emerged across each of the three open-ended questions. Question 1 on evaluation generated the themes of: 1a) promotional review; 1b) funding requirements and 1c) lack of acknowledgement of dissemination activities. Question 2 on recommended changes generated the themes of: 2a) dissemination as a requirement of the academic promotion process; 2b) requirement of dissemination plan and 2c) dissemination metrics. Question 3 on personal changes to improve dissemination generated the themes of: 3a) allocation of resources for dissemination activities; 3b) emerging dissemination channels and 3c) identify and address issues of priority for stakeholders.
Our findings revealed different types of issues D&I scientists encounter when disseminating findings to clinical, public health or policy audiences and their suggestions to improve the process. Future research should consider key requirements which determine academic promotion and grant funding as an opportunity to expand dissemination efforts.
This special issue considers the relationship of the life sciences to both public policy and public administration. This makes sense because the bureaucratic process and public administration are deeply involved in the policy process and the development of substantive public policy. The two subjects are intertwined. And a biological perspective can illuminate many aspects of both. That is the focus of this issue.
Insomnia and depression are highly comorbid and mutually exacerbate clinical trajectories and outcomes. Cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia (CBT-I) effectively reduces both insomnia and depression severity, and can be delivered digitally. This could substantially increase the accessibility to CBT-I, which could reduce the health disparities related to insomnia; however, the efficacy of digital CBT-I (dCBT-I) across a range of demographic groups has not yet been adequately examined. This randomized placebo-controlled trial examined the efficacy of dCBT-I in reducing both insomnia and depression across a wide range of demographic groups.
Of 1358 individuals with insomnia randomized, a final sample of 358 were retained in the dCBT-I condition and 300 in the online sleep education condition. Severity of insomnia and depression was examined as a dependent variable. Race, socioeconomic status (SES; household income and education), gender, and age were also tested as independent moderators of treatment effects.
The dCBT-I condition yielded greater reductions in both insomnia and depression severity than sleep education, with significantly higher rates of remission following treatment. Demographic variables (i.e. income, race, sex, age, education) were not significant moderators of the treatment effects, suggesting that dCBT-I is comparably efficacious across a wide range of demographic groups. Furthermore, while differences in attrition were found based on SES, attrition did not differ between white and black participants.
Results provide evidence that the wide dissemination of dCBT-I may effectively target both insomnia and comorbid depression across a wide spectrum of the population.
Acifluorfen, lactofen, chlorimuron, thifensulfuron, imazethapyr, and imazaquin were evaluated for control of Palmer amaranth, common waterhemp, redroot pigweed, and tumble pigweed at three application timings in field and greenhouse experiments. Results from field studies indicated that most herbicides provided greater than 90% control of common waterhemp, redroot pigweed, and tumble pigweed regardless of time of application. Palmer amaranth was the most difficult species to control, and only thifensulfuron and imazethapyr provided greater than 80% control at all application timings. In the greenhouse experiment, herbicides were applied when pigweeds averaged 10 cm, 20 cm, and 30 cm in height. Results were similar to the field experiment, except that common waterhemp was more difficult to control.
S T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (London: P S King & Son, Ltd, May 1916). First edition. 1000 copies printed, 500 bound up for sale.
S T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (London: P S King & Son, Ltd, October 1916). Second edition.
Consisted of the remaining 500 copies from the first printing. Includes a new chapter entitled ‘Report of the Lands Commission: An Analysis’, bound in at the beginning of the book. Also adds two pages with ‘Some Opinions of the Press on the First Edition’, along with advertisements for Plaatje's Sechuana Proverbs and A Sechuana Reader, the latter co-authored with Daniel Jones.
S T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (London: P S King & Son, Ltd, February 1917). Third edition. Separate impressions for P S King & Son, London; Tsala ea Batho, Kimberley; and The Crisis, New York. ‘Report of the Lands Commission’ chapter moved to the end of the book. Folded map added as insert.
S T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (Kimberley: Tsala ea Batho, and New York: The Crisis, 1920).
No impression by P S King & Son located.
S T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (London: P S King & Son, Ltd, 1921). Fifth edition. No impression for Tsala ea Batho and The Crisis located.
S T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (New York: Negro Universities Press, 1969). Facsimile of Third edition.
Sol T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa, Before and Since the European War and the Boer Rebellion (Johannesburg: Ravan Press, 1982).
Paperback edition. Foreword by Bessie Head, Introduction by Brian Willan. Sol T Plaatje, Native Life in South Africa (Harlow: Longman, 1987). African Classics Series.
Abbreviated paperback edition, omitting chapters 22–24. Introduction by Brian Willan.
First published in 1916, Sol Plaatje’s Native Life in South Africa was written by one of the South Africa’s most talented early twentieth-century black leaders and journalists. Plaatje’s pioneering book arose out of an early African National Congress campaign to protest against the discriminatory1913 Natives Land Act. Native Life vividly narrates Plaatje’s investigative journeying into South Africa’s rural heartlands to report on the effects of the Act and his involvement in the deputation to the British imperial government. At the same time it tells the bigger story of the assault on black rights and opportunities in the newly consolidated Union of South Africa – and the resistance to it. Originally published in war-time London, but about South Africa and its place in the world, Native Life travelled far and wide, being distributed in the United States under the auspices of prominent African-American W E B Du Bois. South African editions were to follow only in the late apartheid period and beyond. The aim of this multi-authored volume is to shed new light on how and why Native Life came into being at a critical historical juncture, and to reflect on how it can be read in relation to South Africa’s heightened challenges today. Crucial areas that come under the spotlight in this collection include land, race, history, mobility, belonging, war, the press, law, literature, language, gender, politics, and the state.
Recent agricultural economics literature has largely analyzed consumers’ willingness to pay (WTP) for many credence attributes, including place of origin, organic, locally grown, environment-friendly, fair trade, and animal welfare. In this study, we instead attempt to analyze why consumers value “locally grown,” which is a credence attribute receiving increasing attention in the market. Specifically, we propose a distinction between the direct effect and the indirect effect of “locally grown” on consumers’ attitudes towards agri-food products to explain consumers’ preferences for locally grown products. We collect data from an experiment with university students and analyze the data with a structural equation modeling methodology.
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a complex neurobehavioral disorder principally characterized by motor and vocal tics. However, features of obsessive-compulsive and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are often present. The basal ganglia and associated brain structures have been implicated in the pathophysiology of TS, as well as in these related conditions. Specifically, it is believed that the neuroanatomically and functionally defined basal ganglia thalamocortical loops are involved in TS. These loops are composed of a sequence of connections originating in the cortex and passing in series through the striatum (caudate and putamen), globus pallidus, and thalamus before returning to the cortical areas of origin. This review concentrates on the neuroimaging findings in Ts, particularly as they relate to alterations in components of the basal ganglia thalamocortical circuits. These neuroimaging data suggest that the major abnormalities in TS involve striatal or cortical dysfunction, as well as dysfunction of dopaminergic systems that regulate basas ganglia neurotransmission.
Scholars argue that the New Institutional Economics (NIE) has not yet provided causal explanations on how long institutions persist or why and how they suffer dramatic changes. Others state that evidence is still inconclusive to define a theoretical justification on how changes and development occur. This article focuses on the institutions of the electricity sector in Brazil, aiming to heighten the body of empirical research in NIE and produce satisfactory explanations that motivate theory refinement. Based on a qualitative approach, we find that the drivers of the first institutional change in Brazil's electricity sector were related to market protection and domestic industrial support. For the second institutional change, economic recession (country at state of bankruptcy, debt crisis, and high inflation rates) and reliability of utility services were the driving factors. We hope this study systematizes historical facts and helps create grounds for our understanding of institutional evolution and economic growth.