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To analyse the gluteal adipose-tissue fatty-acid profiles from Cretan cohort survivors of the Seven Countries Study (SCS) at 2010 and to compare them with those of survivors assessed in 2000, as well as with literature data on male Cretans at 1965.
We analysed data concerning the gluteal adipose-tissue fatty acids (analysed by GC) from three studies.
The island of Crete (rural areas and the city of Heraklion).
Twenty-two of the 2010 SCS survivors aged 90 years and over; seventy-eight men aged 80 years of the 2000 SCS survivors; and 280 men assessed in 1965.
In comparison to 1965 and 2000, the SCS survivors in 2010 had a higher amount of 18:1n-9 (P<0·05) in their gluteal adipose tissue and a lower amount of PUFA (P<0·05). On the other hand, a constant decrease in adipose-tissue 14:1n-5 and 16:1n-7 was recorded between 1965 and 2010 (P<0·001), and between 2000 and 2010 (P<0·05), while 18:2n-6 appeared to decrease between the 1965 and 2010 assessments (P<0·001).
Comparison with a 1965 representative Cretan sample and 2000 SCS survivors indicated an increased concentration of oleic acid (known for its protective role against mortality) and a decreased concentration of PUFA (known for their susceptibility to oxidation) in our surviving sample at 2010. These changes may reflect internal physiological processes due to diet change within these years and/or ageing.
To investigate possible associations of lifestyle patterns with obesity and fat mass in children.
Cross-sectional epidemiological study. Principal component analysis was used to identify lifestyle patterns.
Primary schools from four regions in Greece.
A total of 2073 schoolchildren (aged 9–13 years).
Children in the fourth quartile of the lifestyle pattern combining higher dairy foods with more adequate breakfast consumption were 39·4 %, 45·2 % and 32·2 % less likely to be overweight/obese and in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses and fat mass, respectively, than children in the first quartile of this pattern. Similarly, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern comprising consumption of high-fibre foods, such as fruits, vegetables and wholegrain products, were 27·4 % less likely to be in the highest quartile of sum of skinfold thicknesses than children in the first lifestyle pattern quartile. Finally, children in the fourth quartile of a lifestyle pattern characterized by more time spent on moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and more frequent meals were 38·0 %, 26·3 % and 29·5 % less likely to be overweight, centrally obese and in the highest quartile of fat mass, respectively, than their peers in the first quartile of this lifestyle pattern (all P < 0·05).
The current study identified three lifestyle patterns (i.e. one pattern comprising higher dairy consumption with a more adequate breakfast; a second pattern characterized by increased consumption of high-fibre foods; and a third pattern combining higher physical activity levels with more frequent meals), which were all related with lower odds of obesity and/or increased fat mass levels. From a public health perspective, promotion of these patterns among children and their families should be considered as one of the components of any childhood obesity preventive initiative.
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