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A collaborative research model was developed and tested to enable regional healthcare systems to join multisite clinical trials emanating from the Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA) Trial Innovation Network (TIN) by the Institute of Translational Health Sciences at the University of Washington and the Northwest Participant and Clinical Interactions (NW PCI) Network. The NW PCI is a collaborative group of regional research programs located at medical centers, healthcare systems, and universities across Washington, Wyoming, Alaska, Montana, and Idaho. This article describes the purpose, development, barriers, and initial experience with feasibility assessment for TIN-supported studies in the NW PCI. The tools and processes of the NW PCI Network were adapted to enable network sites to assess studies for clinical relevance and feasibility. Seven of seventeen TIN-supported studies were reviewed for consideration; three of which resulted in successful completion of study documentation for site selection by NW PCI sites. The NW PCI/TIN model can be adapted by other CTSAs to increase involvement of regional research programs in national multisite clinical research studies. Barriers to expanding TIN-supported trials to regional networks include short timelines for study document submissions, insufficient site reimbursement rates, and non-feasible study designs.
Let ℙ denote the weighted projective space with weights (1, 1, 1, 3) over the rationals, with coordinates x, y, z and w; let
be the generic element of the family of surfaces in ℙ given by
is a K3 surface over the function field ℚ(t). In this paper, we explicitly compute the geometric Picard lattice of
, together with its Galois module structure, as well as derive more results on the arithmetic of
and other elements of the family X.
In one of the most significant debates in U.S. intellectual history, John Dewey and Randolph Bourne attempted to redefine the relationship between democracy and war in the midst of World War I. This essay argues that the Dewey-Bourne debate is not just a vital dispute over the United States’ role in the war and the world, but that it also must be seen as a crucial moment for understanding fractures in progressive politics and debates over projects that presume to cultivate an educated citizenry. Focusing on Dewey and Bourne's developing ideas from 1914 through 1918, with an emphasis on concepts evolving in and from Dewey's Democracy and Education and Bourne's cultural criticism, the essay explores their core disagreements about the relationship between education and progressive reform, the role of intellectuals in the state, the consequences of intervention in the war and the use of force, and democratic citizenship in national and international contexts. This essay provides insights into the boundaries and pitfalls of liberal politics in the early twentieth century; it argues that this debate reveals a central ambiguity in Dewey's thought, and shows how wartime expediency and potential for progressive influence derailed aspects of the Deweyan project of democratic education.
Support vector machines (SVM) are currently one of the most popular and accurate methods for binary data classification and prediction. They have been applied to a variety of data and situations such as cyber-security, bioinformatics, web searches, medical risk assessment, financial analysis, and other areas . This type of machine learning is shown to be accurate and is able to generalize predictions based upon previously learned patterns. However, current implementations are limited in that they can only be trained accurately on examples numbering to the tens of thousands and usually run only on serial computers. There are exceptions. A prime example is the annual machine learning and classification competitions such as the International Conference on Artificial Neural Networks (ICANN), which present problems with more than 100,000 elements to be classified. However, in order to treat such large test cases the formalism of the support vector machines must be modified.
SVMs were first developed by Vapnik and collaborators  as an extension to neural networks. Assume that we can convert the data values associated with an entity into numerical values that form a vector in the mathematical sense. These vectors form a space. Also, assume that this space of vectors can be separated by a hyperplane into the vectors that belong to one class and those that form the opposing class.
This Summary for Policymakers presents key findings from the Special Report on Managing the Risks of Extreme Events and Disasters to Advance Climate Change Adaptation (SREX). The SREX approaches the topic by assessing the scientific literature on issues that range from the relationship between climate change and extreme weather and climate events (‘climate extremes’) to the implications of these events for society and sustainable development. The assessment concerns the interaction of climatic, environmental, and human factors that can lead to impacts and disasters, options for managing the risks posed by impacts and disasters, and the important role that non-climatic factors play in determining impacts. Box SPM.1 defines concepts central to the SREX.
The character and severity of impacts from climate extremes depend not only on the extremes themselves but also on exposure and vulnerability. In this report, adverse impacts are considered disasters when they produce widespread damage and cause severe alterations in the normal functioning of communities or societies. Climate extremes, exposure, and vulnerability are influenced by a wide range of factors, including anthropogenic climate change, natural climate variability, and socioeconomic development (Figure SPM.1). Disaster risk management and adaptation to climate change focus on reducing exposure and vulnerability and increasing resilience to the potential adverse impacts of climate extremes, even though risks cannot fully be eliminated (Figure SPM.2). Although mitigation of climate change is not the focus of this report, adaptation and mitigation can complement each other and together can significantly reduce the risks of climate change. [SYR AR4, 5.3]
The intellectual and cultural critic Randolph Bourne originated the concept of a “transnational America” in 1916. More than a mere label, “trans-national America” was the articulation of Bourne's visionary new form of pluralism. This article aims to rethink Bourne's transnationalism as a form of isolationist antiwar idealism, thus helping to bridge his writings on domestic reform and foreign policy. Further, it illuminates an important moment in the intellectual history of isolationism as it assumed a positive, pluralist cast. This analysis also opens new vistas onto the development of a wide-ranging liberal opposition to American entry into World War I. Bourne's potent pluralistic, cosmopolitan ideas and the actions he took—along with those of other antiwar activists, politicians, and thinkers—helped to set the ideological parameters for antiwar thought in the period from 1916 to 1918 as well as for later American dissent, particularly in wartime.
Simple alkanedithiols exhibit the same molecular conductance whether measured in air, under vacuum or under liquids of different polarity. Here, we show that the presence of water ‘gates’ the conductance of a family of oligothiophene–containing molecular wires, and that the longer the oligothiophene, the larger is the effect; for the longest example studied, the molecular conductance is over two orders of magnitude larger in the presence of water, an unprecedented result suggesting that ambient water is a crucial factor to be taken into account when measuring single molecule conductances (SMC), or in the design of future molecular electronic devices. Theoretical investigation of electron transport through the molecules, using the ab initio non-equilibrium Green's function (SMEAGOL) method, shows that water molecules interact with the thiophene rings, shifting the transport resonances enough to increase greatly the SMC of the longer, more conjugated examples.
Stochastic Efficiency with Respect to a Function (SERF) is used to rank transgenic cotton technology groups and place an upper and lower bound on their value. Yield and production data from replicated plot experiments are used to build cumulative distribution functions of returns for nontransgenic, Roundup Ready, Bollgard, and stacked gene cotton cultivars. Analysis of Arkansas data indicated that the stacked gene and Roundup Ready technologies would be preferred by a large number of risk neutral and risk averse producers as long as the costs of the technology and seed are below the lower bounds calculated in this manuscript.
Precise measurements of basal melting have been made at a series of 14 sites lying within a few kilometres of the grounding line of the Ronne Ice Shelf, Antarctica, where the ice thickness ranges from 1570 to 1940 m. The study was conducted over the course of 1 year and included a detailed survey of the horizontal deformation, as well as phase-sensitive radar measurements of the vertical displacement of both internal reflecting horizons and the ice-shelf base. Results from the surface survey show that the long-term viscous strain rate is modulated at tidal frequencies by (probably) elastic strains of order 10−5 per metre of tidal elevation. The radar measurements show a similar modulation of the long-term thinning/thickening of the ice shelf, with thickness oscillations up to a few centimetres in range. The long-term trends in ice thickness determined at points moving with the ice-shelf flow are consistent with a steady-state thickness profile. Vertical strain rates within the ice shelf were determined from the relative motion of internal reflectors. At two sites the observations were sufficient to discern the effect of tidal bending about a neutral surface 60% of the way down the ice column. Coincident measurements of horizontal and vertical strain imply a Poisson’s ratio of 0.5, and this combined with the asymmetric bending gives rise to the observed oscillations in thickness. At a number of sites the longterm viscous strain rates were found to be a linear function of depth. For an ice shelf this is an unexpected result. It can be attributed to the presence of significant vertical shear stresses set up close to the grounding line where the ice is still adjusting to flotation. Additional vertical motion arising from firn compaction was observed within the upper layers of the ice shelf. The additional motion was consistent with the assumption that firn density is a function only of the time since burial by steady surface accumulation. With both spatial and temporal fluctuations in the vertical strain rate accurately quantified it was possible to estimate the vertical motion of the ice-shelf base in response. Differences between the calculated and observed motion of the basal reflector arise because of basal melting. Derived melt rates at the 14 sites ranged from −0.11 ±0.31 to 2.51 ±0.10 m a−1, with a mean of 0. 85 m a−1 and a standard deviation of 0.69 m a−1, and showed no signs of significant sub-annual temporal variability. There was no obvious global correlation with either ice thickness or distance from the grounding line, although melt rates tended to decrease downstream along each of the flowlines studied. Previous estimates of basal melting in this region have been obtained indirectly from an assumption that the ice shelf is locally in equilibrium and have included a broad range of values. Only those at the lower end of the published range are consistent with the directly measured melt rates reported here.
To report the pooled results of seven prevalence surveys of hospital-acquired infections conducted between November 1996 and November 1999, and to use the data to predict the cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired infections in the same patient group.
The summary and modeling of data gathered from the routine surveillance of the point prevalence of hospital-acquired infections.
Auckland District Health Board Hospitals (Auckland DHBH), the largest publicly funded hospital group in New Zealand supplying secondary and tertiary services.
Point-prevalence surveys were conducted including all patients in Auckland DHBH. Standard definitions of hospital-acquired infection were used. The data from the seven surveys were pooled and used in a modeling exercise to predict the cumulative incidence of hospital-acquired infection. An existing method for the conversion of prevalence to cumulative incidence was applied. Results are presented for all patients and stratified by clinical service and site of hospital-acquired infection.
The underlying patterns of hospital-acquired infection by site and service were stable during the seven time periods. The prevalence rate for all patients was 9.5%, with 553 patients identified with one or more hospital-acquired infections from a population of 5,819. The predicted cumulative incidence for all patients was 6.33% (95% confidence interval, 6.20% to 6.46%).
The prevalence and the predicted cumulative incidence are similar to rates reported in the international literature. The validity of the predicted cumulative incidence derived here is not known. If it were accurate, then the application of this method would represent a cost-effective alternative to incidence studies.
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