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Between the first and second world wars, the London County Council (LCC) provided 82,000 working-class cottages and flats, of which 25,000 were built on the vast Becontree estate in the east of the metropolis. With these immense housing operations in hand, the LCC drastically increased its technical and administrative staff, becoming one of the largest municipal housing authorities in the world. This article sheds light on the organisation and functioning of the LCC Architect’s Department through analysis of the Becontree estate. Despite the extensive literature on municipal housing in the inter-war years, the council’s own architects during this period have remained almost entirely unknown. Contrary to the widespread preconception of the ‘official architect’, the LCC Architect’s Department evaluated and revised its organisational structure and managed to maintain a remarkable variety and complexity in its urbanistic approach — despite the overarching principles of standardisation and simplification, and despite its limited influence in relation to other departments within the LCC. Analysis of archival sources reveals the identity of these official architects and questions whether the organisational structure of the LCC Architect’s Department as a bureaucracy was reflected in the character of its housing estates.
Alberta is a Canadian province with a high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS). In this ecological study, we examined group differences in health care utilization among persons with MS (pwMS) living within different regions of the province.
pwMS were identified from provincial administrative databases spanning 2002–2011. Utilization of health care services was determined for a 2-year period (April 2010–March 2012). Residential postal codes placed patients into their provincial health care zones. As data were provided to the investigators in an aggregated form, tests of statistical significance and confounding were not performed.
In total, 11,721 pwMS were identified. During the 2-year observation period, 96.2% of pwMS accessed a family physician and 57.1% accessed a neurologist. Nearly all (99.0%) pwMS who received neurologist care in Calgary visited an MS clinic, in contrast to Edmonton where a larger proportion (34.8%) received solely community neurologist care. More pwMS living in Edmonton accessed the ED (41.1%) compared to Calgary (35.7%), and the rate of visits per pwMS was higher in Edmonton (1.07/pwMS) than in Calgary (0.81/pwMS). The frequency of inpatient admissions was similar.
Over 2 years, most pwMS accessed primary care and over half saw a neurologist. Despite a similar frequency of inpatient admissions, the frequency of ED visits by pwMS was higher in Edmonton compared to Calgary, where more patients received MS clinic care. Although this exploratory study is subject to several limitations, our findings suggest that specialized MS clinics may reduce costly ED visits.
Thrombocytopenia is a risk factor for patent ductus arteriosus. Immature and mature platelets exhibit distinct haemostatic properties; however, whether platelet maturity plays a role in postnatal, ductus arteriosus closure is unknown.
In this observational study, counts of immature and mature platelets (=total platelet count − immature platelet count) were assessed on days 1, 3, and 7 of life in very low birth weight infants (<1500 g birth weight). We performed echocardiographic screening for haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus on day 7.
Counts of mature platelets did not differ on day 1 in infants with (n = 24) and without (n = 45) haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus, while infants with significant patent ductus arteriosus exhibited lower counts of mature platelet on postnatal days 3 and 7. Relative counts of immature platelets (fraction, in %) were higher in infants with patent ductus arteriosus on day 7 but not on days 1 and 3. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis unraveled associations between both lower mature platelet counts and higher immature platelet fraction (percentage) values on days 3 and 7, with haemodynamically significant ductus arteriosus. Logistic regression analysis revealed that mature platelet counts, but not immature platelet fraction values, were independent predictors of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus.
During the first week of postnatal life, lower counts of mature platelets and higher immature platelet fraction values are associated with haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus. Lower counts of mature platelet were found to be independent predictors of haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus.
Direct ink writing of silicone elastomers enables printing with precise control of porosity and mechanical properties of ordered cellular solids, suitable for shock absorption and stress mitigation applications. With the ability to manipulate structure and feedstock stiffness, the design space becomes challenging to parse to obtain a solution producing a desired mechanical response. Here, we derive an analytical design approach for a specific architecture. Results from finite element simulations and quasi-static mechanical tests of two different parallel strand architectures were analyzed to understand the structure-property relationships under uniaxial compression. Combining effective stiffness-density scaling with least squares optimization of the stress responses yielded general response curves parameterized by resin modulus and strand spacing. An analytical expression of these curves serves as a reduced order model, which, when optimized, provides a rapid design capability for filament-based 3D printed structures. As a demonstration, the optimal design of a face-centered tetragonal architecture is computed that satisfies prescribed minimum and maximum load constraints.
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