To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Research on producer willingness to adopt individual best pasture management practices (BMPs) is extensive, but less attention has been paid to producers simultaneously adopting multiple, complementary BMPs. Applications linking primary survey data on BMP adoption to water quality biophysical models are also limited. A choice-experiment survey of livestock producers is analyzed to determine willingness to adopt pasture BMPs. Sediment abatement curves are derived by linking estimates of producer responsiveness to incentives to adopt rotational grazing with a biophysical simulation model. Current cost share rates of $24/acre should yield a 12% decrease in sediment loading from pastures.
We determined how pasture and grazing management practices affected the number of days hay was fed to cattle by season. Data were collected from a survey of Tennessee cattle producers. Days of cattle on hay varied across seasons because of variations in forage production and weather. The number of days hay was fed to cattle varied with pasture-animal management practices such as rotating pastures, forage mixtures, and weed management strategies. Having mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses reduced the number of days on hay in the winter, spring, and summer months indicating benefits from diversified forages.
We have derived absolute proper motions of stars in the Galactic bulge region combining the VVV InfraRed Astrometric Catalogue (VIRAC) and Gaia. We use the proper motions to study the kinematic structure of the bulge both integrated along the line-of-sight and in magnitude intervals using red clump stars as standard candles. In parallel we compare to a made-to-measure barred dynamical model, folding in the VIRAC selection function, to understand and interpret the structures that we observe. The barred dynamical model, which contains a boxy/peanut bulge, and has a pattern speed of 37.5 kms−1 kpc−1, is able to reproduce all structures impressively well.
The spoon-billed sandpiper Calidris pygmaea, a migratory Arctic-breeding shorebird, is one of the rarest birds and its population has declined since the 1970s. We surveyed its most important known wintering area in the Upper Gulf of Mottama in Myanmar to estimate recent (2009–2016) changes in its numbers there. The total number of small shorebirds present in the Upper Gulf was counted and the proportion of them that were spoon-billed sandpipers was estimated from sample scans. These two quantities were multiplied together to give the estimated number of spoon-billed sandpipers in each of 4 years. Total numbers of combined small shorebird species tripled from 21,000 to 63,000 between 2009 and 2016, coincident with efforts to reduce hunting pressure on waterbirds. However, the proportion of small shorebirds that were spoon-billed sandpipers declined and their estimated absolute numbers fell by about half, from 244 to 112 individuals. It is probable that loss of intertidal habitat and shorebird hunting elsewhere on the migration route of the spoon-billed sandpipers wintering at Mottama is causing a continued decline, although this is occurring at a less rapid rate than that recorded from Arctic Russia before 2010. The number of spoon-billed sandpipers wintering on the Upper Gulf of Mottama remains the highest single-site total for this species from any known wintering site. Preventing resurgence of illegal shorebird hunting and ensuring long-term protection of the intertidal feeding habitats and roost sites in the Gulf are high priorities if extinction of this species is to be averted.
We undertook a study on Cryptosporidium spp. in wild cricetid rodents. Fecal samples were collected from meadow voles (Microtus pennsylvanicus), southern red-backed voles (Myodes gapperi), woodland voles (Microtus pinetorum), muskrats (Ondatra zibethicus) and Peromyscus spp. mice in North America, and from bank voles (Myodes glareolus) and common voles (Microtus arvalis) in Europe. Isolates were characterized by sequence and phylogenetic analyses of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU) and actin genes. Overall, 33·2% (362/1089) of cricetids tested positive for Cryptosporidium, with a greater prevalence in cricetids from North America (50·7%; 302/596) than Europe (12·1%; 60/493). Principal Coordinate analysis separated SSU sequences into three major groups (G1-G3), each represented by sequences from North American and European cricetids. A maximum likelihood tree of SSU sequences had low bootstrap support and showed G1 to be more heterogeneous than G2 or G3. Actin and concatenated actin-SSU trees, which were better resolved and had higher bootstrap support than the SSU phylogeny, showed that closely related cricetid hosts in Europe and North America are infected with closely related Cryptosporidium genotypes. Cricetids were not major reservoirs of human pathogenic Cryptosporidium spp.
This study measures willingness to pay (WTP) for extrinsic attributes (Angus, local, DNA traceable, raised carbon friendly, and humanely treated cattle) in steak and ground beef using choice-based experiments from a national consumer survey. Belief that survey responses could have consequences on beef products offered by the steak and ground beef industry is investigated, as well as its effect on attribute WTP. For most attributes, belief in consequentiality increases WTP. Results suggest that although consequentiality believers tend to place greater importance on certain food industry issues, they are less certain about the attribute's provision actually effecting change in the industry.
The relationship between sildenafil dosing, exposure, and systemic hypotension in infants is incompletely understood.
The aim of this study was to characterise the relationship between predicted sildenafil exposure and hypotension in hospitalised infants.
We extracted information on sildenafil dosing and clinical characteristics from electronic health records of 348 neonatal ICUs from 1997 to 2013, and we predicted drug exposure using a population pharmacokinetic model.
We identified 232 infants receiving sildenafil at a median dose of 3.2 mg/kg/day (2.0, 6.0). The median steady-state area under the concentration–time curve over 24 hours (AUC24,SS) and maximum concentration of sildenafil (Cmax,SS,SIL) were 712 ng×hour/ml (401, 1561) and 129 ng/ml (69, 293), respectively. Systemic hypotension occurred in 9% of the cohort. In multivariable analysis, neither dosing nor exposure were associated with systemic hypotension: odds ratio=0.96 (95% confidence interval: 0.81, 1.14) for sildenafil dose; 0.87 (0.59, 1.28) for AUC24,SS; 1.19 (0.78, 1.82) for Cmax,SS,SIL.
We found no association between sildenafil dosing or exposure with systemic hypotension. Continued assessment of sildenafil’s safety profile in infants is warranted.
Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the longitudinal trajectory of self- and informant-subjective cognitive complaints (SCC), and to determine if SCC predict longitudinal changes in objective measures (OM) of cognitive function. Methods: The study included healthy and cognitively normal late middle-aged adults enriched with a family history of AD who were evaluated at up to three visits over a 4-year period. At each visit (Visit 1–3), self- and informant-SCC and OM were evaluated. Linear mixed models were used to determine if the longitudinal rate of change of self- and informant-SCC were associated with demographic variables, depressive symptoms, family history (FH), and apolipoprotein epsilon 4 (APOE4) status. The same modeling approach was used to examine the effect of Visit 1 SCC on longitudinal cognitive change after controlling for the same variables. Results: At Visit 1, more self-SCC were associated with fewer years of education and more depressive symptoms. SCC were also associated with poorer performance on cognitive measures, such that more self-SCC at Visit 1 were associated with poorer performance on memory and executive functioning measures at Visit 1, while more informant-SCC were associated with faster rate of longitudinal decline on a measure of episodic learning and memory. FH and APOE4 status were not associated with SCC. Discussion: Self- and informant-SCC showed an association with OM, albeit over different time frames in our late middle-aged sample. Additional longitudinal follow-up will likely assist in further clarifying these relationships as our sample ages and more pronounced cognitive changes eventually emerge. (JINS, 2017, 23, 617–626)
In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants.
This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight <1500 g who were discharged after day of life 7 from 362 neonatal ICU from 1997 to 2013. The primary outcome was death between day of life 7 and discharge. Secondary outcomes included bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotising enterocolitis, and grade 3 or 4 intraventricular haemorrhage.
This study included a total of 48,551 infants with a median gestational age of 27 weeks (interquartile range 25, 28) and birth weight 870 g (706, 1050). Early echocardiography – that is, performed during days of life 2 to 6 – was performed in 15,971/48,551 (33%) infants, and patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], p<0.001). In multivariable analysis, early echocardiography was not associated with reduced mortality (odds ratio 0.97, 95% CI 0.89–1.05). Results were similar in the subset of infants who received therapy for patent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90–1.15).
Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.
Declines in populations of the Critically Endangered Spoon-billed Sandpiper Calidris pygmaeus have been rapid, with the breeding population now perhaps numbering fewer than 120 pairs. The reasons for this decline remain unresolved. Whilst there is evidence that hunting in wintering areas is an important factor, loss of suitable habitat on passage and wintering areas is also of concern. While some key sites for the species are already documented, many of their wintering locations are described here for the first time. Their wintering range primarily stretches from Bangladesh to China. Comprehensive surveys of potential Spoon-billed Sandpiper wintering sites from 2005 to 2013 showed a wide distribution with three key concentrations in Myanmar and Bangladesh, but also regular sites in China, Vietnam and Thailand. The identification of all important non-breeding sites remains of high priority for the conservation of the species. Here, we present the results of field surveys of wintering Spoon-billed Sandpipers that took place in six countries between 2005 and 2013 and present species distribution models which map the potential wintering areas. These include known and currently unrecognised wintering locations. Our maximum entropy model did not identify any new extensive candidate areas within the winter distribution, suggesting that most key sites are already known, but it did identify small sites on the coast of eastern Bangladesh, western Myanmar, and the Guangxi and Guangdong regions of China that may merit further investigation. As no extensive areas of new potential habitat were identified, we suggest that the priorities for the conservation of this species are habitat protection in important wintering and passage areas and reducing hunting pressure on birds at these sites.
A triple hurdle model estimates cattle farmer willingness to adopt or expand prescribed grazing on pasture in the United States in response to a hypothetical incentive program. Interest in adoption/expansion is estimated first, then willingness to participate in the program, followed by intensity of participation measured as additional acres enrolled. The supply elasticity of enrolled acres with respect to the incentive is 0.13. Nonpecuniary factors inter alia farmer sentiment about stewardship, current farm management practices, farm location, and education are associated with farmer willingness to participate and with participation intensity.
State programs promoting their agricultural products have proliferated in response to increased consumer interest in locally grown foods. Tennessee, for example, currently has two state-funded programs promoting its agricultural products. This study examines the factors associated with participation by Tennessee fruit and vegetable farmers in those programs. The results suggest that farmer participation is associated with farm income, use of extension resources, and fresh produce sales. These results should be of interest to anyone attempting to increase producer participation in such programs.