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Late Medieval Castles is a companion to Anglo-Norman Castles (2003), a volume that brought together a series of historiographically significant articles on castles and castle-building in the period from the Norman Conquest to the early thirteenth century. The format and themes of the present collection are broadly comparable with the earlier book, but with the focus on those castles dating to the period c.1250–1500.
In the course of bringing Anglo-Norman Castles to publication the somewhat arbitrary cut-off date of c.1225 seemed unsatisfactory for a number of reasons. On a practical level, there were highly relevant articles that could not be included because the subject matter fell outside the chronological range of the volume. A more scholarly concern was the fact that a number of issues pertinent to castle-building in the eleventh and twelfth centuries could not be satisfactorily addressed without reference to subsequent developments in the thirteenth and fourteenth. Allied to this, a focus on Anglo-Norman building (no matter how justifiable in historical terms) does perhaps contribute, albeit unwittingly, to the erroneous idea that the eleventh and twelfth centuries are the most important centuries for castle-building, a time when the ‘true’ castle is to be found, and that the period that follows, particularly after 1300, is something of an anti-climax. The present volume should therefore be seen as a continuation of the broad themes discussed in the introduction to Anglo-Norman Castles, with the aim of pursuing them in a late medieval context.
In the years since 2003 there have been a number of important publications in the field of castle studies, and castles continue to be a source of controversy and to provoke debate. Despite the fact that the availability of some secondary material has been made easier through electronic access, I have been consistently reminded by academic colleagues that a compilation such as this is worthwhile, both for the student reader and those seeking a path into the specialist secondary literature. This author at least also believes that there is value in bringing together in one place a series of important contributions that have defined the subject and which also illustrate a diversity of approaches.
The castles of the late medieval period represent some of the finest medieval monuments in Britain, with an almost infinite capacity to fascinate and draw controversy. They are also a source of considerable academic debate. The contents of this volume represent key works in castle scholarship. Topics discussed include castle warfare, fortress customs, architectural design and symbolism, spatial planning and the depiction of castles in medieval romance. The contributions also serve to highlight the diversity of approaches to the medieval castle, ranging from the study of documentary and literary sources, analysis of fragmentary architectural remains and the recording of field archaeology. The result is a survey that offers an in-depth analysis of castle building from the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, and places castles within their broader social, architectural and political contexts.
Robert Liddiard is Professor of History, University of East Anglia.
Contributors: Nicola Coldstream, Charles Coulson, Philip Dixon, Graham Fairclough, P.A. Faulkner, John Goodall, Beryl Lott, Charles McKean, T.E. McNeill, Richard K. Morris, Michael Prestwich, Christopher Taylor, Muriel A. Whitaker.
An inertia–gravity wave (IGW) propagating in a vertically sheared, rotating stratified fluid interacts with the pair of inertial levels that surround the critical level. An exact expression for the form of the IGW is derived here in the case of a linear shear and used to examine this interaction in detail. This expression recovers the classical values of the transmission and reflection coefficients
is the Richardson number and
the ratio between the horizontal transverse and along-shear wavenumbers. For large
, a WKB analysis provides an interpretation of this result in term of tunnelling: an IGW incident on the lower inertial level becomes evanescent between the inertial levels, returning to an oscillatory behaviour above the upper inertial level. The amplitude of the transmitted wave is directly related to the decay of the evanescent solution between the inertial levels. In the immediate vicinity of the critical level, the evanescent IGW is well represented by the quasi-geostrophic approximation, so that the process can be interpreted as resulting from the coupling between balanced and unbalanced motion. The exact and WKB solutions describe the so-called valve effect, a dependence of the behaviour in the region between the inertial levels on the direction of wave propagation. For
this is shown to lead to an amplification of the wave between the inertial levels. Since the flow is inertially unstable for
, this establishes a correspondence between the inertial-level interaction and the condition for inertial instability.
Polymers are receiving considerable attention as components in novel optical systems because of the tailored functionality, easy manufacturing, and relatively low cost. The processing of layered polymeric systems by coextrusion is a method to produce films comprising hundreds to thousands of alternating layers with thickness spanning the nanoscale to microscale in a single, one-step roll-to-roll process. Several layered polymer optical systems have been fabricated by coextrusion, including tunable refractive index elastomers, photonic crystals, and mechanically tunable photonic crystals. Layered polymeric optical systems made by coextrusion can also incorporate active components such as laser dyes for all-polymer laser systems.
We model a single-hop mobile network under centralized
control with N service classes as a system of
N weighted cost parallel queues with M (1 ≤
M < N) servers, arrivals, varying
binary connectivity, and Bernoulli service success at each
queue. We consider scheduling problems in this system and,
under various assumptions on arrivals and connectivity,
derive conditions sufficient, but not necessary, to guarantee
the optimality of an index policy.
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