To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 192 is devoted to Islamic Republic of Iran v. United States of America, Legal Consequences of the Separation of the Chagos Archipelago from Mauritius in 1965, Sub-Regional Fisheries Commission (SRFC), PSPP Case, Re Review of Constitutionality of Article 1244 Civil Code and Article 212 Criminal Code of Russian Federation, Re Review of Constitutionality of Provisions of Articles 31.7 and 31.9 of the Code of Administrative Offences of Russian Federation, R (RF) v Secretary of State for Work and Pensions, R (Bancoult) v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, A local authority v. AG
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 191 is devoted to the 2020 Award concerning Preliminary Objections of Russian Federation in the Dispute Concerning Coastal State Rights in the Black Sea, Sea of Azov, and Kerch Strait, the 2020 judgment of the Canadian Supreme Court in Nevsun Resources Ltd v. Araya and Others and the 2020 judgment of the English Court of Appeal in Mahmoud v. Breish.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 190 is devoted to the 2016 Judgment on preliminary objections and the 2017 Order on counter-claims of the International Court of Justice in Nicaragua v. Colombia, Maritime Delimitation in the Caribbean Sea and the Pacific Ocean and Land Boundary in the Northern Part of Isla Portillos (Costa Rica v. Nicaragua), the 2019 Final arbitral award on reparations in The Duzgit Integrity (Republic of Malta v. São Tomé and Príncipe), and the 2019 Judgment of the English High Court in Heiser's Estate and Others v Islamic Republic of Iran.
This is the first report on the association between trauma exposure and depression from the Advancing Understanding of RecOvery afteR traumA(AURORA) multisite longitudinal study of adverse post-traumatic neuropsychiatric sequelae (APNS) among participants seeking emergency department (ED) treatment in the aftermath of a traumatic life experience.
We focus on participants presenting at EDs after a motor vehicle collision (MVC), which characterizes most AURORA participants, and examine associations of participant socio-demographics and MVC characteristics with 8-week depression as mediated through peritraumatic symptoms and 2-week depression.
Eight-week depression prevalence was relatively high (27.8%) and associated with several MVC characteristics (being passenger v. driver; injuries to other people). Peritraumatic distress was associated with 2-week but not 8-week depression. Most of these associations held when controlling for peritraumatic symptoms and, to a lesser degree, depressive symptoms at 2-weeks post-trauma.
These observations, coupled with substantial variation in the relative strength of the mediating pathways across predictors, raises the possibility of diverse and potentially complex underlying biological and psychological processes that remain to be elucidated in more in-depth analyses of the rich and evolving AURORA database to find new targets for intervention and new tools for risk-based stratification following trauma exposure.
The aim of this study was to measure whether participating in Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program – Education (SNAP-Ed) interventions is associated with changes in meeting recommendations for healthy eating and food resource management behaviours, such as shopping, among low-income children, adolescents, and adults in eight states in the US Southeast. The study used a one-group pre-test post-test design, analysing aggregate data on nutrition and shopping behaviours collected during Federal Fiscal Year 17 from SNAP-Ed direct education in community settings. Twenty-five implementing agencies in Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Kentucky, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, and Tennessee provided aggregated data on program participants. Because survey questions differed, agencies followed standard recoding guidelines. The number of participants varied depending on the indicator; the maximum number was n 43 303 pre-tests, n 43 256 post-test. Participants were significantly more likely to consume more than one kind of fruit (pooled relative risk (RR), 1⋅10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1⋅09–1⋅11) and more than one kind of vegetable (pooled RR, 1⋅14; 95% CI, 1⋅12–1⋅15) after the intervention than before. On average, participants consumed 0⋅34 cups more of fruit per day (95% CI, 0⋅31–0⋅37), and 0⋅22 cups more of vegetables per day (95% CI, 0⋅19–0⋅25) after the intervention, compared to before. About 701 policy, systems, and environmental changes for nutrition supports were reported. This study suggests that SNAP-Ed direct education is associated with positive behaviour changes in the US Southeast. It provides a methodology that can inform data aggregation efforts across unique SNAP-Ed programs or other similar nutrition education programs to report on the collective impact.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 189 is devoted to the 2016 judgment on Jurisdiction and Admissibility in Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. India), the 2016 judgment on Jurisdiction and Admissibility in Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. Pakistan) and the 2016 judgment on Preliminary Objections in Obligations concerning Negotiations relating to Cessation of the Nuclear Arms Race and to Nuclear Disarmament (Marshall Islands v. United Kingdom).
There are numerous associations between psychological characteristics and political values, but it is unclear whether messages tailored to these psychological characteristics can influence political decisions. Two studies (N = 398, N = 395) tested whether psychological-based argument tailoring could influence participants’ decision-making. We constructed arguments based on the 2016 Brexit referendum; Remain supporters were presented with four arguments supporting the Leave campaign, tailored to reflect the participant’s strongest (/weakest) moral foundation (Loyalty or Fairness) or personality trait (Conscientiousness or Openness). We tested whether individuals scoring high on a trait would find the tailored arguments more persuasive than individuals scoring low on the same trait. We found clear evidence for targeting, particularly for Loyalty, but either no evidence or weak evidence, in the case of Conscientiousness, for tailoring. Overall, the results suggest that targeting political messages could be effective, but provide either no, or weak evidence that tailoring these messages influences political decision-making.
Investigation of treatments that effectively treat adults with post-traumatic stress disorder from childhood experiences (Ch-PTSD) and are well tolerated by patients is needed to improve outcomes for this population.
The purpose of this study was to compare the effectiveness of two trauma-focused treatments, imagery rescripting (ImRs) and eye movement desensitisation and reprocessing (EMDR), for treating Ch-PTSD.
We conducted an international, multicentre, randomised clinical trial, recruiting adults with Ch-PTSD from childhood trauma before 16 years of age. Participants were randomised to treatment condition and assessed by blind raters at multiple time points. Participants received up to 12 90-min sessions of either ImRs or EMDR, biweekly.
A total of 155 participants were included in the final intent-to-treat analysis. Drop-out rates were low, at 7.7%. A generalised linear mixed model of repeated measures showed that observer-rated post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms significantly decreased for both ImRs (d = 1.72) and EMDR (d = 1.73) at the 8-week post-treatment assessment. Similar results were seen with secondary outcome measures and self-reported PTSD symptoms. There were no significant differences between the two treatments on any standardised measure at post-treatment and follow-up.
ImRs and EMDR treatments were found to be effective in treating PTSD symptoms arising from childhood trauma, and in reducing other symptoms such as depression, dissociation and trauma-related cognitions. The low drop-out rates suggest that the treatments were well tolerated by participants. The results from this study provide evidence for the use of trauma-focused treatments for Ch-PTSD.
We implemented universal severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was <0.5%, which suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. Although our protocol was resource intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
We obtain several norm and eigenvalue inequalities for positive matrices partitioned into four blocks. The results involve the numerical range
of the off-diagonal block
, especially the distance
. A special consequence is an estimate,
Waters, Ruiz, and Roisman (2017) recently published evidence based on the Minnesota Longitudinal Study of Risk and Adaptation (MLSRA) that sensitive caregiving during childhood is associated with higher levels of secure base script knowledge during the Adult Attachment Interview (AAIsbs). At present, however, little is known about the role of variation in atypical caregiving, including abuse and/or neglect, in explaining individual differences in AAIsbs. This study revisited data from the MLSRA (N = 157) to examine the association between experiencing abuse and/or neglect in the first 17.5 years of life and secure base script knowledge measured at ages 19 and 26 years. Several aspects of abuse and/or neglect experiences were assessed, including perpetrator identity, timing, and type. Regressions revealed that childhood abuse and/or neglect was robustly associated with lower AAIsbs scores in young adulthood, above and beyond previously documented associations with maternal sensitivity and demographic covariates. Follow-up analyses provided evidence that the predictive significance of abuse for secure base script knowledge was specific to perpetration by parental figures, rather than non-caregivers. Exploratory analyses indicated that abuse and/or neglect: (a) in middle childhood and adolescence (but not infancy and early childhood) and (b) physical abuse (but not sexual abuse or neglect) were uniquely associated with lower AAIsbs scores.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought to examine: 1) variability in center acceptance patterns for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates, 2) impact of this acceptance behavior on candidate survival, and 3) post-transplantation outcomes in candidates who accepted first rank offer vs. previously declined offer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this retrospective cohort study, the US national transplant registry was queried for all match runs of adult candidates listed for isolated heart transplantation between 2007-2017. We examined center acceptance rates for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates and accounted for covariates in multivariable logistic regression. Competing risks analysis was performed to assess the relationship between center acceptance rate and waitlist mortality. Post-transplantation outcomes (patient survival and graft failure) between candidates who accepted their first-rank offers vs those who accepted previously declined offers were compared using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 19,703 unique organ offers, 6,302 (32%) were accepted for first-ranked candidates. After adjustment for donor, recipient, and geographic covariates, transplant centers varied markedly in acceptance rates (12%-62%) of offers made to first-ranked candidates. Lowest acceptance rate centers (<25%) associated with highest cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality. For every 10% increase in adjusted center acceptance rate, waitlist mortality risk decreased by 27% (SHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80). No significant difference was observed in 5-year adjusted post-Tx survival and graft failure between hearts accepted at the first-rank vs lower-rank positions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wide variability in heart acceptance rates exists among centers, with candidates listed at low acceptance rate centers more likely to die waiting. Similar post-Tx survival suggests previously declined allografts function as well as those accepted at first offer. Center-level decision is a modifiable behavior associated with waitlist mortality.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: This work-in-progress aims to: 1) identify and differentiate symptom pattern trajectories in a sample of older adult heart failure (HF) patients over 24 weeks, and 2) examine associations between sociodemographic/clinical/physiological characteristics, dyadic health, and symptom trajectories. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: ENABLE CHF-PC, a palliative care RCT (NCT02505425), was conducted at a Southeastern US medical center. Between 2016-2018, 415 older adult HF patients and 159 family caregivers were randomized to receive a psychoeducational intervention or usual care. Baseline sociodemographic information (age, gender, rurality, etc.) were collected. Outcome variables of interest include symptoms (Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative 14, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) and dyadic health (PROMIS-SF Global Health). We have calculated baseline descriptive statistics. Future work includes latent growth mixture modeling to identify distinct symptom trajectories and univariate associations with patient level factors. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Of 415 patient participants, mean age was 64, 53% were male; 55% were African American; 26% were rural dwellers; 46% had +15.8) and low anxiety (6.7+3.6) and depressive symptoms (5.7+4.3) on the HADS. Of 159 family caregivers participants, the mean age was 57.9, 85.4% were female, 51.9% were African-American, and 65.2% were the patient’s spouse/partner. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Limited data describes HF symptom pattern trajectories.How co-occurring symptoms affect quality of life or are affected by personal or situational factors are not well-understood. This study will help to identify factors and symptom phenotypes that may serve as targets for future interventions.
Writing about fascism and aviation has stressed the role technology played in Mussolini's ambitions to cultivate fascist ideals in Italy and amongst the Italian diaspora. In this article we examine Francesco De Pinedo's account of the Australian section of his record-breaking 1925 flight from Rome to Tokyo. Our analysis of De Pinedo's reception as a modern Italian in a British Australia, and his response to that reception, suggests that this Italian aviator was relatively unconcerned with promoting Fascist greatness in Australia. De Pinedo was interested in Australian claims to the forms of modernity he had witnessed in the United States and which the Fascists were attempting to incorporate into a new vision of Italian destiny. Flight provided him with a geographical imagination which understood modernity as an international exchange of progressive peoples. His Australian reception revealed a nation anxious about preserving its British identity in a globalising world conducive to a more cosmopolitan model of modernity.
Liquid drop impact dynamics depends on the liquid–substrate interaction. In particular, when liquid–solid friction is decreased, the spreading of the impacting drop lasts longer. We characterise this effect by using two types of superhydrophobic surfaces, with similar wetting properties but different friction coefficients. It is found that, for large enough impact velocities, a reduced friction delays the buildup of a viscous boundary layer, and leads to an increase of the time required to reach the maximal radius of the impacting drop. An asymptotic analysis is carried out to quantify this effect, and agrees well with the experimental findings. Interestingly, this novel description complements the general picture of drop impact on solid surfaces, and more generally addresses the issue of drag reduction in the presence of slippage for non-stationary flows.
Transient energy supply remains one of the key challenges limiting the development of transient implantable medical devices for monitoring, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases within a predetermined time frame. A key feature of such devices is their controllable degradation during service life. An on-board transient energy supply with predictable performance over time is required to drive transient electronics. In this article, we present recent advances in the development of materials for biodegradable energy-storage devices (batteries and supercapacitors) and biodegradable energy-harvesting systems (enzymatic biofuel cells and triboelectric nanogenerators). Future perspectives, challenges, and opportunities related to energy materials for transient power sources will also be summarized.
Diagnosis and classification for mental disorder are in flux. This transition has downstream consequences on the nature of clinical assessment in research and treatment settings. We begin this chapter by describing the prevailing categorical rubrics, which are the predominant guide to clinical assessment worldwide. These systems, despite their popularity, suffer from serious defects, which have prompted the development of alternate frameworks for conceptualization and assessment of psychopathology. We focus the remainder of the chapter on two prominent contenders to supplement, and perhaps eventually supplant, traditional categorical models. The Hierarchical Taxonomy of Psychopathology is an empirically derived system of the phenotypic dimensions of psychopathology and the Research Domain Criteria represent a biologically oriented approach to understanding risk processes implicated in mental disorder. We describe the promise and challenges facing these two emerging systems, and we speculate about how they will shape the future of clinical assessment.
Hong Kong Englishes attract the interest of scholars in a number of disciplines, including creative writing, education, political science, and anthropology. The efforts made by sociolinguists, in particular, contribute much to an understanding of what the Englishes of Hong Kong look like, how it is used, and the ways in which speakers position their linguistic identities in relation to English. Such work builds on the foundation of historical and cultural descriptions of the region offered in Bolton's earlier seminal research (e.g., Bolton, 2000), which continues today to provide a lens through which to describe how Englishes are used in Hong Kong (e.g., Evans, 2017) and the extent to which the language shapes the ideologies of its community members (e.g., Jenks & Lee, 2016). Yet despite past and ongoing efforts to better understand the social and ideological complexities of using English in the region, there continues to be a generalizing perception within and beyond scholarship that Hongkongers wish to mimic the speech patterns of monolingual speakers of English from the United States, United Kingdom, and other ‘Inner Circle’ regions. While this characterization may capture some, or perhaps even a large portion of (cf. Qin, 2018), speakers in the region, recent scholarship suggests that the language ideologies of Hongkongers are not monolithic, and that care should be taken in describing the different speech communities that use English (cf. Jenks & Lee, 2016). In a recent study on ‘Kongish’, for example, Sewell and Chan (2016) argue that notions of English are connected to the multiple, and sometimes contradictory, linguistic identities expressed by speakers in Hong Kong.
Decisions of international courts and arbitrators, as well as judgments of national courts, are fundamental elements of modern public international law. The International Law Reports is the only publication in the world wholly devoted to the regular and systematic reporting in English of such decisions. It is therefore an absolutely essential work of reference. Volume 184 is devoted to the 2018 judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Ireland v. United Kingdom (Request for Revision of Judgment of 18 January 1978), the judgment of the European Court of Human Rights in Al Nashiri v. Poland (concerning the United States' Central Intelligence Agency rendition programme) and the judgment of the Court of Appeal of Northern Ireland in Re Application by Finucane for Judicial Review (concerning the enforceability under domestic law of the procedural obligation under Article 2 of the European Convention on Human Rights).