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Field studies were conducted near Sparr, FL, in 2001 and 2002 to evaluate the response of ‘Valencia 102’ grown for the green peanut market (or boiling peanut) to preemergence (PRE) and postemergence (POST) applications of herbicides registered for dry peanut production (roasted market). Green peanut exhibited excellent tolerance to most PRE and POST treatments. There was minimal injury (8%) from flumioxazin applications when evaluated early season in both years, and peanut quickly recovered. Norflurazon caused chlorosis to peanut foliage (23%) in both years. Yield reduction was observed in 2001 for flumioxazin (15%), metolachlor (20%), and norflurazon (41%) compared with the untreated control. However, there were no yield reductions for any of the PRE treatments in 2002. Bentazon + paraquat early postemergence (EPOST) followed by (fb) 2,4-DB POST, bentazon + paraquat EPOST fb clethodim POST, and imazapic EPOST caused ≤5% injury and had no effect on yield in either year.
Field studies were conducted near Knoxville, TN, from 2003 to 2005 to evaluate the response of ‘Thermal Blue’, a new interspecific hybrid Kentucky bluegrass to commonly applied PRE and POST herbicides for weed management. Dithiopyr, oryzalin, oxadiazon, pendimethalin, prodiamine, quinclorac, and trifluralin applied at seeding injured hybrid bluegrass greater than 81% and reduced hybrid bluegrass cover greater than 57%. In a second study, established hybrid bluegrass was treated POST with acetolactate synthase–inhibiting herbicides including bispyribac-sodium, chlorosulfuron, foramsulfuron, halosulfuron, imazapic, imazaquin, metsulfuron, rimsulfuron, sulfosulfuron, and trifloxysulfuron at low and high rates (one and two times the suggested use rates in Kentucky bluegrass or other turfgrasses). By 5 wk after treatment (WAT), foramsulfuron at 88 g ai/ha and trifloxysulfuron at 35 g ai/ha injured hybrid bluegrass greater than 26% and reduced visually estimated quality and chlorophyll meter indices. However, hybrid bluegrass injury was no longer evident at 10 WAT. In a third study, established hybrid bluegrass was treated with clethodim, diclofop-methyl, fluazifop-p-butyl, and sethoxydim applied at low, medium, and high rates (0.5, 1, and 2 times the registered Kentucky bluegrass or other turfgrass use rates). Clethodim applied at 280 and 560 g ai/ha, fluazifop at 420 g ai/ha, and sethoxydim at 630 g ai/ha injured hybrid bluegrass 5 WAT. These treatments also reduced quality (to less than 5 on a scale of 1 to 9) and chlorophyll meter indices (24 to 37%) when compared to the untreated control. By 10 WAT, only clethodim at 560 g ai/ha caused injury (14%). By 10 WAT, hybrid bluegrass had recovered and injury was only observed in plots treated with clethodim at 560 g ai/ha. No differences in chlorophyll indices or quality were observed at 10 WAT for any POST graminicides.
Greenhouse and field experiments were conducted near Knoxville, TN, during 2002 and 2003 to investigate the effects of calcium and magnesium ions on the performance of three glyphosate formulations with and without diammonium sulfate (AMS). Weed species investigated in the greenhouse were broadleaf signalgrass, pitted morningglory, Palmer amaranth, and yellow nutsedge. Three glyphosate formulations (isopropylamine salt, diammonium salt, and potassium salt) and two glyphosate application rates (0.42 and 0.84 kg ae/ha) were applied to weeds in water fortified with either calcium or magnesium at concentrations of 0, 250, 500, 750, and 1,000 ppm. In all comparisons, there were no differences in the three glyphosate formulations. Glyphosate activity was reduced only when cation concentration was >250 ppm, and this antagonism was not observed when 2% w/ w AMS was added to the spray solution. A chemical analysis of the calcium and magnesium concentrations in water collected from farmers indicated that water samples from eight different producers contained relatively low amounts of cations, with calcium at <40 ppm and magnesium at <8 ppm. In the field results using these and other waters as the herbicide carrier, broadleaf signalgrass control was greater with the 0.84 kg ae/ha than 0.42 kg ae/ha glyphosate rate regardless of water source or addition of AMS. Pitted morningglory responded similarly to glyphosate with water from all farms and with AMS added, and the addition of AMS gave similar results for both glyphosate rates. In 2003, common cocklebur was evaluated and control was >93% regardless of glyphosate rate, water source, or AMS addition. Based on these results, the addition of AMS-based adjuvants to many glyphosate applications may not be warranted.
Field studies were conducted in 2007 and 2008 to evaluate fall applications of herbicides to control glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed before planting cotton. Fall treatments were compared with spring treatments for control of GR horseweed and effect on seed cotton yield. Fall and spring treatments with and without residual herbicides were also compared. No differences were observed for control of GR horseweed or seed cotton yield between fall and spring application timings. However, a difference was observed between fall applications with and without a residual herbicide. Fall applications that contained residual herbicides provided 86% control of GR horseweed and yielded 2,360 kg/ha of seed cotton. Fall applications that did not contain a residual herbicide only provided 70% control of GR horseweed and yielded 2,010 kg/ha of seed cotton. No benefit was observed from spring applications that contained a residual herbicide. This research indicates that glyphosate-resistant horseweed can be controlled with fall- or spring-applied burndown herbicides, and fall applications should include a residual herbicide for best results.
Managing glyphosate-resistant (GR) horseweed in no-till cotton continues to be a serious challenge for midsouthern producers. Field studies were conducted in 2008 and 2009 to evaluate spring burndown applications of saflufenacil on GR horseweed prior to planting cotton. Saflufenacil controlled GR horseweed at least 94% up to 7 d before planting (DBP) without causing significant cotton injury. Saflufenacil applied at 7 or 14 DBP controlled GR horseweed while still providing residual control until planting. Moreover, saflufenacil, on silt loam soil evaluated in this study, showed no more injury than dicamba applied 7 or more DBP. Results indicated that saflufenacil is an option in cotton for controlling GR horseweed much closer to cotton planting than 42 DBP (current saflufenacil label). At 25 g ha−1, which is the standard labeled rate in cotton, saflufenacil provided > 90% control of GR horseweed. Saflufenacil as a GR horseweed burndown, could replace the current dicamba standard every other year to reduce the probability of horseweed developing resistance to dicamba or salflufenacil.
Field studies were conducted from 1998 to 2000 in Tennessee, North Carolina, Arkansas, and Oklahoma to determine the effects of sulfentrazone carryover to a cotton rotational crop from sulfentrazone applied the previous year. Sulfentrazone applied the previous year at 400 g/ha caused no yield loss in Tennessee, >30% yield reduction in Oklahoma, and 20% yield loss in Arkansas and North Carolina. In most experiments in this study, visual evaluations of injury closely correlated with final cotton lint yield (r2 =0.84).
Dioscorea oppositifolia (Chinese yam) is an exotic perennial vine invading natural areas in the temperate regions of the eastern United States. Rapid early-season growth of D. oppositifolia is facilitated by an extensive tuber system. Plants can reach heights greater than 370 cm, as the plants climb trees and other vegetation. Shoot length increased 3.6 cm/d from late May to mid-August under field conditions, and primary and secondary tuber length increased 0.28 and 0.2 cm/d, respectively. This indicated rapid vegetative growth and substantial food reserves to form new plants in subsequent years. Dioscorea oppositifolia plants also formed aerial bulbils of 0.8- to 1.2-cm diameter, which are important in dissemination of the species over geographical areas. A field study indicated incomplete control from manual removal, clipping by hand, or glyphosate (2% v/v) application to control D. oppositifolia, although glyphosate was the most effective. Additionally, the use of herbicides was more efficient from a time-utilization perspective than either manual removal or clipping. In a separate study, glyphosate application at flowering was more effective in reducing D. oppositifolia growth the year after application as compared with glyphosate applications soon after emergence. Under greenhouse conditions, however, glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae/ha provided <15% control. The ester formulation of triclopyr at 2.5 kg ai/ha provided >90% D. oppositifolia control. Metsulfuron provided 31% control, and mesotrione provided 36% control and at higher rates may reduce D. oppositifolia growth. Several other herbicides having diverse modes of action provided minimal control of D. oppositifolia.
Herbicide treatments (4:1 ratio of 2,4-D amine:picloram) at 0.7 and 1.4 kg ae/ha at early postemergence (10- to 15-cm horsenettle height), midpostemergence (early flower), and late postemergence (fruit initiation) applied both early and late in the growing season provided >80% horsenettle control. Horsenettle density at season's end in all treated plots was less than 0.25 stems/m2, whereas untreated plots contained about 5 stems/m2. Horsenettle control the next spring was between 47 and 66% for all rates and application timings, and horsenettle density in treated plots was less than 3 stems/m2 as opposed to about 6 stems/m2 in the untreated plots. Clover drilled into the treated area the year after herbicide application was injured, indicating clover establishment the season after application of this package mixture would be difficult.
Field studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 at Marianna and Gainesville, FL, to evaluate the response of three runner-type peanut cultivars, ‘Georgia Green’, ‘C-99R’, and ‘MDR-98’, to flumioxazin applied preemergence at 0, 71, 105, and 211 g/ha in a weed-free environment. Peanut exhibited excellent tolerance to flumioxazin, regardless of flumioxazin rate or peanut cultivar, at Gainesville in 1999 and both locations in 2000. In 1999, at Marianna, flumioxazin caused early-season stunting and season-long reduction in peanut canopy width. Peanut response was independent of cultivar and did not exceed 25%, with an increase in stunting with higher flumioxazin rates. Peanut stunting was associated with cool and extremely wet growing conditions during the first 2 mo after planting in 1999 at Marianna. Peanut yield and grade parameters, in both years, were not affected by flumioxazin treatment.
Factors affecting horseweed emergence are important for management of this weed species, particularly because of the presence of herbicide-resistant biotypes. Horseweed emergence was highly variable and not strongly correlated to soil temperature (r2 = 0.21), air temperature (r2 = 0.45) or rainfall (r2 = 0.32). Horseweed emerged mainly during April and September in Tennessee when average daytime temperatures fluctuate between 10 and 15.5 C. However, some horseweed plants emerged during almost any month when temperatures ranged from 10 to 25 C and adequate moisture was available at the soil surface. Horseweed densities ranged from a low of 30 to 50 plants m−2 to a high of > 1,500 plants−2 at one location. These extremely high densities illustrate the ability of horseweed to be an effective ruderal plant that can produce stands that approach monoculture densities if not controlled. The amount of crop residue remaining after harvest from the previous field season was in the order of corn > cotton > soybean > fallow. Residue from a previous corn crop reduced horseweed emergence compared with soybean and cotton residues in a no-tillage situation. Decreased horseweed density due to crop residue presence indicates that a systems approach may help reduce horseweed populations.
Italian ryegrass resistance to diclofop has been documented in several countries, including the United States. The purpose of this research was to screen selected putative resistant populations of Italian ryegrass for resistance to the acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACCase)–inhibiting herbicides diclofop and pinoxaden and the acetolactate synthase (ALS)–inhibiting herbicides imazamox, pyroxsulam, and mesosulfuron in the greenhouse and to use field experiments to develop herbicide programs for Italian ryegrass control. Resistance to diclofop was confirmed in eight populations from Tennessee. These eight populations did not show cross-resistance to pinoxaden. One additional population (R1) from Union County, North Carolina, was found to be resistant to both diclofop and pinoxaden. The level of resistance to pinoxaden of the R1 population was 15 times that of the susceptible population. No resistance was confirmed to any of the ALS-inhibiting herbicides examined in this research. Field experiments demonstrated PRE Italian ryegrass control with chlorsulfuron (71 to 94%) and flufenacet + metribuzin (84 to 96%). Italian ryegrass control with pendimethalin applied PRE or delayed preemergence (DPRE) was variable (0 to 85%). POST control of Italian ryegrass was acceptable with pinoxaden, mesosulfuron, flufenacet + metribuzin, and chlorsulfuron + flucarbazone (> 80%). Application timing and herbicide treatment had no effect on wheat yield, except for diclofop and pendimethalin treatments, in which uncontrolled Italian ryegrass reduced wheat yield.
Chinese yam is an exotic perennial vine that invades natural areas in the temperate regions of the eastern United States. Research was conducted from 2001 to 2004 to evaluate growth, reproduction, and management options for this weed. Vine length, lateral shoot production, and reproductive capacity were lower in the first year of growth compared to 2 subsequent years. During the second and third growing season, plants were more mature and tended to flower earlier and produce larger bulbils compared to the first growing season. Maximum vine length was not reached prior to frost in the first year and was approximately 480 cm in each of the subsequent years. Both glyphosate and triclopyr were effective in controlling plants growing from bulbils and plants growing from tubers. Triclopyr did not display acropetal translocation, in that only the treated tissue died. However, both products displayed excellent basipetal translocation resulting in elimination of tubers and no shoot regrowth the year following treatment. Native area managers should attempt to eradicate small populations of Chinese yam prior to establishment of an extensive tuber system.
During routine use of fluazifop-P-butyl for grass control, county extension agents in Georgia observed control of bristly starbur in grower fields. Experiments to characterize the activity of fluazifop-P-butyl on bristly starbur were conducted under greenhouse conditions in Gainesville, FL, during 2001 and 2002. Fluazifop-P-butyl activity was characterized as a function of herbicide rate and time after application. Commercially available fluazifop-P-butyl was compared to technical fluazifop-P-butyl as a function of herbicide rate and bristly starbur height. Finally, injury to bristly starbur was evaluated when clethodim, diclofop, fluazifop-P-butyl, haloxyfop, quizalofop-p, and sethoxydim were applied at two growth stages. Fluazifop-P-butyl caused >90% injury to bristly starbur with all other post graminicides displaying <8% injury. Nonlinear regression revealed a sigmoidal response of bristly starbur injury to fluazifop-P-butyl. Estimates for 50 and 90% bristly starbur injury (I50 and I90) were 0.07 and 0.14 kg ai/ha, respectively. There was no difference in activity of technical and commercial fluazifop-P-butyl formulations. There was a differential response of bristly starbur to fluazifop-P-butyl over time as a function of plant height at the time of treatment. However, 14 days after treatment (DAT) all treatments displayed >89% injury. Bristly starbur response to fluazifop-P-butyl was similar to injury associated with contact-type herbicides.
Field studies were conducted in 1999 and 2000 to evaluate the response of three runner market-type peanut cultivars to diclosulam applied preplant incorporated at 0,18, 27, or 54 g ai/ha in a weed-free environment. Peanut cultivars evaluated included ‘Georgia Green’, ‘C-99R’, and ‘MDR-98’. Peanut injury was not observed with diclosulam at any rate or with any cultivar. Diclosulam did not affect peanut canopy development, percentage extra-large kernels, sound mature kernels, sound splits, total sound mature kernels, other kernels, or yield for any cultivar.
Field studies were conducted near Marianna, FL during 1999 and 2000 to evaluate weed control and peanut response to PPI treatments of diclosulam alone, PRE treatments of flumioxazin alone, and in systems with POST commercial standard herbicides. Diclosulam and flumioxazin alone did not control sicklepod. Paraquat plus bentazon plus 2,4-DB applied early POST fb chlorimuron plus 2,4-DB or imazapic controlled sicklepod and pitted morningglory at least 83%. These treatments were equal to or greater than diclosulam or flumioxazin with or without paraquat plus bentazon plus 2,4-DB, or the same system fb 2,4-DB mid POST. Peanut yield was similar when treated with diclosulam or flumioxazin fb the standard early POST (EPOST) system, flumioxazin alone, or imazapic alone. Peanut treated with diclosulam alone or paraquat plus bentazon plus 2,4-DB fb 2,4-DB yielded lower than other treatments because of late-emerging Florida beggarweed. Peanut treated with chlorimuron, regardless of which soil-applied herbicide was used, yielded less due to a longer period of interference from Florida beggarweed, sicklepod, and pitted morningglory because of the timing of chlorimuron application (60 d after planting).
Field studies were conducted in Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, and Tennessee during 2010 and 2011 to determine the effect of glufosinate application rate on LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton. Glufosinate was applied in a single application (three-leaf cotton) or sequential application (three-leaf followed by eight-leaf cotton) at 0.6, 1.2, 1.8, and 2.4 kg ai ha−1. Glufosinate application rate did not affect visual injury or growth parameters measured in LibertyLink cotton. No differences in LibertyLink cotton yield were observed because of glufosinate application rate; however, LibertyLink cotton treated with glufosinate yielded slightly more cotton than the nontreated check. Visual estimates of injury to WideStrike cotton increased with each increase in glufosinate application rate. However, the injury was transient, and by 28 d after the eight-leaf application, no differences in injury were observed. WideStrike cotton growth was adversely affected during the growing season following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and greater; however, cotton height and total nodes were unaffected by glufosinate application rate at the end of the season. WideStrike cotton maturity was delayed, and yields were reduced following glufosinate application at rates of 1.2 kg ha−1 and above. Fiber quality of LibertyLink and WideStrike cotton was unaffected by glufosinate application rate. These data indicate that glufosinate may be applied to WideStrike cotton at rates of 0.6 kg ha−1 without inhibiting cotton growth, development, or yield. Given the lack of injury or yield reduction following glufosinate application to LibertyLink cotton, these cultivars possess robust resistance to glufosinate. Growers are urged to be cautious when increasing glufosinate application rates to increase control of glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth in WideStrike cotton. However, glufosinate application rates may be increased to maximum labeled rates when making applications to LibertyLink cotton without fear of reducing cotton growth, development, or yield.
Many agricultural producers apply glyphosate to glyphosate-resistant crops to control weeds, including Palmer amaranth. Populations of this weed in Tennessee not completely controlled by glyphosate were examined. Field and greenhouse research confirmed that two separate populations had reduced biomass sensitivity (1.5× to 5.0×) to glyphosate compared to susceptible populations, although the level of resistance was higher based on plant mortality response (about 10×). Shikimate accumulated in both resistant and susceptible plants, indicating that 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) was inhibited in both biotypes. These results suggest that an altered target site is not responsible for glyphosate resistance in these Palmer amaranth biotypes.
Peanuts are not often used as a true oilseed crop, especially for the production of fuel. However, peanut could be a feedstock for biodiesel, especially in on-farm or small cooperative businesses, where producers can dictate the cost of making their own fuel. Field studies were conducted in 2005 and 2006 to assess low-cost weed-control systems for peanuts that would facilitate the economic viability of peanut biodiesel. Four preselected herbicide costs ranging from $25 to $62/ha and two application timings were compared with nontreated ($0/ha) and typical ($115/ha) herbicide programs for weed control and peanut oil yield. A peanut oil yield goal of 930 L/ha was exceeded with multiple low-cost herbicide systems in 3 of 4 site–yr. The main effect of application timing was only significant for a single site–year in which oil yield increased linearly with cost of the PRE and POST weed-control system. An herbicide cost of $50/ha, using PRE and POST applications, was consistently among the highest in oil yield, regardless of site–year, exceeding the typical (high value) programs in 3 of 4 site–yr. Use of reduced rates of imazapic (0.5× or 0.035 kg ai/ha) was detrimental in 2 of 4 site–yr. Weed control, and thus oil yields, were most dependent on species present at each location and not on input price. Data from this series of studies will allow researchers and entrepreneurs to more accurately assess the viability and sustainability of peanut biodiesel.
Annual bluegrass is one of the most difficult-to-control weeds in creeping bentgrass putting greens. Field trials were conducted in 2003 and 2005 to evaluate bispyribac-sodium for annual bluegrass management in creeping bentgrass greens maintained at a 3 mm mowing height. Bispyribac-sodium applied weekly at 12 or 24 g ai/ha controlled annual bluegrass 86% 12 wk after initial treatment (WAIT). In 2003, bispyribac-sodium applied at 12 and 24 g/ha/wk injured creeping bentgrass approximately 15 and 50% by 4 WAIT, respectively. However, injury was transient and was not evident by 12 WAIT. In 2005, the 12 and 24 g/ha/wk injured creeping bentgrass 15 and 85% by 8 WAIT, respectively, and was still evident throughout the trial. Putting green quality was reduced when compared to nontreated creeping bentgrass by the same treatments. The removal of annual bluegrass caused soil exposure until creeping bentgrass grew over the bare areas, contributing to decreased quality evaluations. Management of annual bluegrass in creeping bentgrass putting greens is possible with bispyribac-sodium. However, these results indicate bispyribac-sodium can cause excessive injury when applied to creeping bentgrass mowed at 3 mm.
Field studies were conducted near Knoxville, TN, during late March and early April 2002 and 2003, respectively, for star-of-Bethlehem control in dormant bermudagrass turf that was established over 25 yr ago. Halosulfuron, imazaquin, metsulfuron, 2,4-D plus dicamba plus mecoprop, and triclopyr plus clopyralid controlled star-of-Bethlehem 35% at most 35 d after treatment (DAT). Bromoxynil alone or mixed with halosulfuron, imazaquin, or metsulfuron controlled star-of-Bethlehem at least 80% at 35 DAT. Imazaquin and imazaquin plus bromoxynil injured bermudagrass 51% 35 DAT. This injury was characterized by decreased bermudagrass postdormancy transition and was transient.