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When and where the process of state formation took place in the biblical kingdom of Judah is heavily debated. Our regional project in the southwestern part of Judah, carried out from 2007 to the present, includes the excavation of three Iron Age sites: Khirbet Qeiyafa, Tel Lachish, and Khirbet al-Ra’i. New cultural horizons and new fortification systems have been uncovered, and these discoveries have been dated by 59 radiometric determinations. The controversial question of when the kingdom was able to build a fortified city at Lachish, its foremost center after Jerusalem, is now resolved thanks to the excavation of a previously unknown city wall, dated by radiocarbon (14C) to the second half of the 10th century BCE.
The jigsaw percolation process on graphs was introduced by Brummitt et al. (2015) as a model of collaborative solutions of puzzles in social networks. Percolation in this process may be viewed as the joint connectedness of two graphs on a common vertex set. Our aim is to extend a result of Bollobás et al. (2017) concerning this process to hypergraphs for a variety of possible definitions of connectedness. In particular, we determine the asymptotic order of the critical threshold probability for percolation when both hypergraphs are chosen binomially at random.
Climate variables that control the annual cycle of the surface energy and mass balance on Zhadang glacier in the central Tibetan Plateau were examined over a 2 year period using a physically based energy-balance model forced by routine meteorological data. The modelled results agree with measured values of albedo, incoming longwave radiation, surface temperature and surface level of the glacier. For the whole observation period, the radiation component dominated (82%) the total surface energy heat fluxes. This was followed by turbulent sensible (10%) and latent heat (6%) fluxes. Subsurface heat flux represented a very minor proportion (2%) of the total heat flux. The sensitivity of specific mass balance was examined by perturbations of temperature (±1 K), relative humidity (±20%) and precipitation (±20%). The results indicate that the specific mass balance is more sensitive to changes in precipitation than to other variables. The main seasonal variations in the energy balance were in the two radiation components (net shortwave radiation and net longwave radiation) and these controlled whether surface melting occurred. A dramatic difference in summer mass balance between 2010 and 2011 indicates that the glacier surface mass balance was closely related to precipitation seasonality and form (proportion of snowfall and rainfall).
This study aimed to review available disaster training options for health care providers, and to provide specific recommendations for developing and delivering a disaster-response-training program for non-disaster-trained emergency physicians, residents, and trainees prior to acute deployment.
A comprehensive review of the peer-reviewed and grey literature of the existing training options for health care providers was conducted to provide specific recommendations.
A comprehensive search of the Pubmed, Embase, Web of Science, Scopus, and Cochrane databases was performed to identify publications related to courses for disaster preparedness and response training for health care professionals. This search revealed 7,681 unique titles, of which 53 articles were included in the full review. A total of 384 courses were found through the grey literature search, and many of these were available online for no charge and could be completed in less than six hours. The majority of courses focused on management and disaster planning; few focused on clinical care and acute response.
There is need for a course that is targeted toward emergency physicians and trainees without formal disaster training. This course should be available online and should utilize a mix of educational modalities, including lectures, scenarios, and virtual simulations. An ideal course should focus on disaster preparedness, and the clinical and non-clinical aspects of response, with a focus on an all-hazards approach, including both terrorism-related and environmental disasters.
HansotiB, KelloggDS, AberleSJ, BroccoliMC, FedenJ, FrenchA, LittleCM, MooreB, SabatoJJr., SheetsT, WeinbergR, ElmesP, KangC. Preparing Emergency Physicians for Acute Disaster Response: A Review of Current Training Opportunities in the US. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2016;31(6):643–647.
We identified an outbreak of AmpC–producing Escherichia coli infections resistant to third-generation cephalosporins and carbapenems (CR) among 7 patients who had undergone endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography at hospital A during November 2012–August 2013. Gene sequencing revealed a shared novel mutation in a blaCMY gene and a distinctive fumC/ fimH typing profile.
To determine the extent and epidemiologic characteristics of the outbreak, identify potential sources of transmission, design and implement infection control measures, and determine the association between the CR E. coli and AmpC E. coli circulating at hospital A.
We reviewed laboratory, medical, and endoscopy reports, and endoscope reprocessing procedures. We obtained cultures from endoscopes after reprocessing as well as environmental samples and conducted pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and gene sequencing on phenotypic AmpC isolates from patients and endoscopes. Cases were those infected with phenotypic AmpC isolates (both carbapenem-susceptible and CR) and identical blaCMY-2, fumC, and fimH alleles or related pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns.
Thirty-five of 49 AmpC E. coli tested met the case definition, including all CR isolates. All cases had complicated biliary disease and had undergone at least 1 endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography at hospital A. Mortality at 30 days was 16% for all patients and 56% for CR patients. Two of 8 reprocessed endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography scopes harbored AmpC that matched case isolates by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Environmental cultures were negative. No breaches in infection control were identified. Endoscopic reprocessing exceeded manufacturer’s recommended cleaning guidelines.
Recommended reprocessing guidelines are not sufficient.
Tb doped gadolinium fluoride nanophosphors embedded in an aluminosilicate glass matrix is reported for X-ray imaging applications. The nanocomposite scintillators were prepared by a melt-quench method followed by annealing. The GdF3:Tb nanophosphors precipitated within the oxide glass matrix during the processing and their luminescence and scintillation properties were investigated.
Population studies show that greater red and processed meat consumption increases colorectal cancer risk, whereas dietary fibre is protective. In rats, resistant starches (a dietary fibre component) oppose colonocyte DNA strand breaks induced by high red meat diets, consistent with epidemiological data. Protection appears to be through SCFA, particularly butyrate, produced by large bowel carbohydrate fermentation. Arabinoxylans are important wheat fibre components and stimulate large bowel carbohydrate SCFA production. The present study aimed to determine whether an arabinoxylan-rich fraction (AXRF) from wheat protected colonocytes from DNA damage and changed colonic microbial composition in pigs fed with a diet high (30 %) in cooked red meat for 4 weeks. AXRF was primarily fermented in the caecum, as indicated by higher tissue and digesta weights and higher caecal (but not colonic) acetate, propionate and total SCFA concentrations. Protein fermentation product concentrations (caecal p-cresol and mid- and distal colonic phenol) were lower in pigs fed with AXRF. Colonocyte DNA damage was lower in pigs fed with AXRF. The microbial profiles of mid-colonic mucosa and adjacent digesta showed that bacteria affiliating with Prevotella spp. and Clostridial cluster IV were more abundant in both the mucosa and digesta fractions of pigs fed with AXRF. These data suggest that, although AXRF was primarily fermented in the caecum, DNA damage was reduced in the large bowel, occurring in conjunction with lower phenol concentrations and altered microbial populations. Further studies to determine the relationships between these changes and the lowering of colonocyte DNA damage are warranted.
Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) show promise as materials that can exhibit ferromagnetism at room temperature (RT). However, the nature of ferromagnetism in this material system must be well understood in order to allow intelligent design of RT spintronic devices. This work investigates the magnetic properties of the as-grown films and the effect of Mn incorporation on crystal integrity and device performance. Ga1-xMnxN films were grown by MOCVD on c-plane sapphire substrates with varying thickness and Mn concentration. Homogenous Mn incorporation throughout the films was verified with Secondary Ion Mass
Spectroscopy (SIMS), and no macroscopic second phases (MnxNy) were detected using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Superior crystalline quality in the MOCVD-grown films relative to Mn-implanted GaN epilayers was confirmed via Raman spectroscopy. Vibrating sample magnetometry measurements showed an apparent room temperature ferromagnetic hysteresis in the as-grown epiayers. Similarly, a marked decrease in the magnetization was observed with annealing and silicon doping, as well as in post-growth annealed Mg-codoped samples. The observed decrease in muB per Mn with increasing Mn concentration is explained by Raman spectroscopy results, which show a decrease in long-range lattice ordering and an increase in nitrogen vacancy concentration with increasing Mn concentration. Magnetic and electron-spin paramagnetic resonance (EPR) data also show that the position of the Fermi level relative to the Mn2+/3+ level is the determining factor in magnetization. Light emitting diodes (LEDs) containing a Mn-doped active region have also been produced. Devices were fabricated with different Mn-doped active layer thicknesses, and I-V characteristics show that the devices become more resistive as thickness of the Mn-doped active layer increases. The magnetic and structural properties observed in this work will be used in conjunction with characteristics and magneto-optical of the Mn-containing devices to discuss the theoretical models of ferromagnetism in Ga1-xMnxN
Dual Multi-Quantum Well (MQW) region light emitting diodes (LEDs) for efficient pumping of multiple phosphors have been grown by Metal Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition (MOCVD), for use in broadband, white solid state light sources. Blue (460 nm) and Violet/UV (∼400–420 nm) emitting MQW regions were incorporated into one device and show recombination mechanisms similar to single MQW region devices. The introduction of a decoupling region successfully separated the electroluminescent emissions, and two distinct emission peaks were observed. These devices can be used to pump a variety of phosphors designed for blue and UV sources, allowing for more design flexibility in color rendering and color temperature attributes of solid state light sources.
Quantum dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) have been studied widely for normal-incidence infrared detection. The 3D confinement provided by quantum dots allows for the elimination of gratings that are typically required for normal-incidence detection in quantum well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs). Furthermore, the growth of Ge dots on Si substrates offers the potential for integration with existing CMOS platforms. To date, however, Ge QDIPs have typically been grown epitaxially by Stranski-Krastonov growth – producing pancake-like dots with base dimensions of 50-100 nm, heights of 7-10 nm, and an aerial dot density of 109–1010 cm−2. Such dots have poor lateral confinement, causing them to have non-ideal normal-incidence absorption characteristics, similar to quantum wells. In this work, we demonstrate infrared absorption in Ge dots with base dimensions of approximately 15 nm. These dots are epitaxially grown on pre-patterned Si substrates, with an aerial dot density of approximately 1011 cm−2. The substrates are prepared by using diblock copolymers to create a nano-pattern on the substrate surface which is transferred to the substrate by dry etching. The size of this pattern determines the base dimensions of the Ge dots. After growth, these dots are then tested for their infrared absorption properties using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy. The normal-incidence absorption of the dots can be studied with FTIR by varying the polarization angle of the infrared light. We present FTIR absorption spectra for samples grown with various conditions (e.g., different dot doping levels, numbers of layers, and dot base dimensions) and investigate the effects of different growth conditions on infrared absorption properties. We also report on the normal-incidence absorption characteristics of these dots by presenting absorption spectra for various polarization angles of infrared light.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a unique group of materials with high aspect ratio, mechanical and electrical properties, which are of great interests in the field of interconnects, and radio frequency applications. In order to incorporate CNTs into any of these applications successfully, one important issue that has to be resolved is the critical parameters (temperature and reactant gases) associated with the growth of the CNTs. As such, the effect of these growth requirements on the adjacent components should be studied. In this work, we examined specifically the effect of carbon nanotubes growth on the underlying metallization, in particular gold, dedicated for radio-frequency-based applications. The gold coplanar lines were annealed at 800°C in a plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) system to simulate the worst-case condition. The reflection and transmission parameters were analyzed using a probe station connected to a vector network analyzer. Carbon nanotubes grown on different barrier layers were also characterized using a scanning electron microscope and Raman spectroscopy to identify a suitable barrier layer for gold. Our results showed that it is promising to integrate carbon nanotubes grown using PECVD onto Au coplanar waveguide without degrading the S-parameters measurements up to 20 GHz.
The complexity of layered-spinel yLi2MnO3·(1 – y)Li1+xMn2–xO4 (Li:Mn = 1.2:1; 0 ≤ x ≤ 0.33; y ≥ 0.45) composites synthesized at different temperatures has been investigated by a combination of x-ray diffraction (XRD), x-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). While the layered component does not change substantially between samples, an evolution of the spinel component from a high to a low lithium excess phase has been traced with temperature by comparing with data for pure Li1+xMn2–xO4. The changes that occur to the structure of the spinel component and to the average oxidation state of the manganese ions within the composite structure as lithium is electrochemically removed in a battery have been monitored using these techniques, in some cases in situ. Our 6Li NMR results constitute the first direct observation of lithium removal from Li2MnO3 and the formation of LiMnO2 upon lithium reinsertion.
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