To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Diagnostic considerations for juvenile onset Parkinsonism (onset at <21 years of age) include juvenile Huntington disease, Wilson disease, dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA), storage diseases, and mitochondrial cytopathies. Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease (NIID) must also be considered.
We present a case of juvenile onset NIID with a predominantly Parkinsonian presentation, followed later by corticospinal, cerebellar, and lower motor neuron symptoms.
Diagnosis of NIID can be made antemortem through rectal biopsy, however it was missed in this case. Rectal biopsy should be performed in all suspected cases, reviewed by an experienced neuropathologist and repeated if the suspicion for NIID is high. Pathologically, SUMO-1 immunohistochemistry appears to reliably label the neuronal inclusions and abnormal SUMOylation may play a part in the pathogenesis.