This paper reports results of the first neutron-activation analysis (NAA) of ancient pottery wares and clays from the Puuc region of Yucatan. Based on ceramics from Sayil, this investigation seeks to expand exploration into the nature of commercialization during the Terminal Classic period (A.D. 800–1000). This research sought to: (a) establish the chemical composition of major Puuc wares, (b) begin to define potential raw materials and production loci at Sayil, and (c) explore the question of whether Sayil was a major producer and exporter of ceramic wares. Compositional analysis reveals that three of the four major Puuc wares (Puuc Slate, Puuc Unslipped, and Puuc Red) exhibit some degree of chemical distinctiveness, suggesting discrete production units. Compositional analysis of clays from Sayil and Loltun Cave indicates that Puuc Slate and Puuc Red Ware are compatible with clays locally available at Sayil, supporting local production of these wares, whereas Puuc Unslipped Ware initially appears to be closer compositionally to clays from Loltun. In addition, Puuc Slate is an important ware found throughout northern Yucatan that shows evidence of large-scale production at Sayil. This analysis represents the first steps of a comprehensive investigation into the Maya economy of Terminal Classic Yucatan.