To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
It is a fundamental term of the social contract that people trade allegiance for protection. In the nineteenth century, as millions of people made their way around the world, they entangled the world in web of allegiance that had enormous political consequences. Nationality was increasingly difficult to define. Just who was a national in a world where millions lived well beyond the borders of their sovereign state? As the nineteenth century gave way to the twentieth, jurists and policymakers began to think of ways to cut the web of obligation that had enabled world politics. They proposed to modernize international law to include subjects other than the state. Many of these experiments failed. But, by the mid-twentieth century, an international legal system predicated upon absolute universality and operated by intergovernmental organizations came to the fore. Under this system, individuals gradually became subjects of international law outside of their personal citizenship, culminating with the establishment of international courts of human rights after the Second World War.
Self-assembly techniques are powerful and efficient methods for the synthesis of nanoscale materials. Using these techniques and their combination with other bottom-up fabrication processes, materials with hierarchical features can be produced with form and function in multiple length scales. We synthesize multifunctional nanoparticles through surfactant-assisted noncovalent interactions using nanoparticle building blocks. Self-assembly of these nano-building blocks results in functional materials that exhibit well-defined morphologies and hierarchical architectures for a wide range of applications. Hierarchically structured porphyrin nanocrystals can be synthesized through surfactant micelle-confined noncovalent interactions of photoactive porphyrins. We can amplify the intrinsic advantages of individual photoactive porphyrins by engineering them into well-defined active nanostructures. Through kinetic control, these nanocrystals exhibit precisely defined size, shape, and spatial arrangement of the individual porphyrins, which facilitates intermolecular mass and energy transfer. These self-assembly techniques provide remarkable flexibility to design morphologies and architectures that produce desirable properties for practical applications including photocatalysis, photodegradation, and phototherapy.
Anti-black prejudice affects how some citizens evaluate black candidates. What does it take to reduce the role of prejudice in these evaluations? Using logical implications of relevant psychological phenomena, this article shows that repeated exposure to counter-stereotypical information is insufficient to reduce evaluative prejudice. Instead, citizens must associate this prejudice with adverse effects for themselves in contexts that induce them to rethink their existing racial beliefs. These findings explain important disagreements in empirical prejudice research, as only some empirical research designs supply the conditions for prejudice reduction predicted here. This study also clarifies why similarly situated citizens react so differently to counter-stereotypical information. In sum, we find that prejudice change is possible, but in a far narrower set of circumstances than many scholars claim.
The objectives of this study were to compare behaviour problems and competencies, at home and school, in 7-year-old children with congenital heart disease with a sibling control group, to examine the prospective determinants of outcome from infancy, and to explore whether any gains were maintained in our sub-group of children who had participated in a previous trial of psychological interventions in infancy.
A total of 40 children who had undergone surgery to correct or palliate a significant congenital heart defect in infancy were compared (Child Behavior Checklist) with a nearest-age sibling control group (18 participants). Comparisons were made between sub-groups of children and families who had and had not participated in an early intervention trial.
Problems with attention, thought and social problems, and limitations in activity and school competencies, were found in comparison with siblings. Teacher reports were consistent with parents, although problems were of a lower magnitude. Disease, surgical, and neurodevelopmental functioning in infancy were related to competence outcomes but not behaviour problems. The latter were mediated by family and maternal mental health profiles from infancy. Limited, but encouraging, gains were maintained in the sub-group that had participated in the early intervention programme.
The present study is strengthened by its longitudinal design, use of teacher informants, and sibling control group. The patterns of problems and limitations discerned, and differential determinants thereof, have clear implications for interventions. We consider these in the light of our previously reported intervention trial with this sample and current outcomes at the 7-year follow-up.
Very few studies have examined the cross-national prevalence of suicidal
ideation in the general population or variables associated with it.
To examine the risk factors for suicidal ideas in the general
As part of a five-country two stage epidemiological study of depressive
disorder (the ODIN study) a random sample of over 12 000 people were
screened using the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). There followed
detailed analysis of item 9 of the BDI, which measured the severity of
Age, marriage, concern by others and severity of depressed mood
independently increased or decreased the odds of suicidal ideation
overall. An interaction between life events and social supports was
identified, although this differed between men and women. Only concern by
others and severity of depression were independently associated with
serious suicidal ideation. The study does not allow for interpretation of
the direction of the association.
A number of social, clinical and demographic variables were independently
associated with all suicidal ideation and with serious suicidal ideation.
Longitudinal studies are required to confirm whether these are risk
factors for or the result of suicidal ideation or have some other
Little is known about patterns of healthcare use by people with
depression in Europe.
To examine the use and cost of services by adults with depressive or
adjustment disorders in five European countries, and predictive
People aged 18–65 years with depressive or adjustment disorders
(n=427) in Ireland, Finland, Norway, Spain and the UK
provided information on predisposition (demographics, social support),
enablement (country, urban/rural, social function) and need (symptom
severity, perceived health status) for services. Outcome measures were
self-reported use Client Services Receipt Interview and costs of general
practice, generic, psychiatric or social services in the past 6
Less frequent use was made of generic services in Norway and psychiatric
services in the UK. Severity of depression, perceived health status,
social functioning and level of social support were significant
predictors of use; the number of people able to provide support was
positively associated with greater health service use.
Individual participant factors provided greater explanatory power than
national differences in healthcare delivery. The association between
social support and service use suggests that interventions may be needed
for those who lack social support.
Adjustment disorder entered the DSM–II nomenclature in 1968 and was recognized in ICD–9 in 1978. Before then the term ‘transient situational disturbance’ was applied to such conditions. The addition of adjustment disorder to the ICD classification was in response to the confusion generated by the older concepts of reactive and endogenous depression. Both DSM–IV (American Psychiatric Association, 1994) and ICD–10 (World Health Organization, 1992) retain the category of adjustment disorder, which has utility as a clinical concept. However, it has been eclipsed by the focus on mood disorder among research and policy-makers. A consequence of this is the danger of exaggerating the need for expensive and sometimes unpredictable mental health interventions in those whose problems are likely to resolve spontaneously.
This is the first report on the epidemiology of depressive disorders from the European Outcome of Depression International Network (ODIN) study.
To assess the prevalence of depressive disorders in randomly selected samples of the general population in five European countries.
The study was designed as a cross-sectional two-phase community study using the Beck Depression Inventory during Phase 1, and the Schedule for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry during Phase 2.
An analysis of the combined sample (n=8.764) gave an overall prevalence of depressive disorders of 8.56% (95% Cl 7.05–10.37). The figures were 10.05% (95% Cl 7.80–12.85) for women and 6.61% (95% Cl 4.92–8.83) for men. The centres fall into three categories: high prevalence (urban Ireland and urban UK), low prevalence (urban Spain) and medium prevalence (the remaining sites).
Depressive disorder is a highly prevalent condition in Europe. The major finding is the wide difference in the prevalence of depressive disorders found across the study sites.
ODIN aims (a) to provide data on the prevalence, risk factors and outcome of depressive disorders in rural and urban settings within the European Union (EU) based on an epidemiological sampling frame; and (b) to assess the impact of two psychological interventions on the outcome of depression and on service utilisation and costs.
Five centres across the EU are participating in ODIN. The centres are linked electronically and members meet regularly for training and strategic reviews. Urban and rural areas have been identified in each centre. The sampling frame is of adults aged 18–64, identified via primary care databases or electoral registers. Potential cases of depressive disorders are identified using the Beck Depression Inventory. SCAN II and other validated measures are used to assign caseness against DSM–IV and ICD–10 criteria; assess comorbidity, disability, genetic/familial susceptibility, psychosocial stressors, personality traits and cognitive factors; and utilisation of local health care services. A randomised controlled trial of individual problem-solving treatment and a group educational programme is undertaken for respondents identified as cases of depressive disorder. Individuals are followed-up at six and 12 months.
Results and Conclusions
ODIN has already stimulated the development of an effective international research partnership.
A method for the preparation of aminosilane coated, chemically stable, agglomerate-free superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (ferrites, e.g. Fe3O4 and γ-Fe2O3) has been developed. These nanocomposite particles posess core-shell structure. The well crystallized core particles are prepared by precipitation from aqueous salt solutions (primary particle size 10 nm). The surface modification of the weakly agglomerated core particles with aminosilane (e.g. γ-aminopropyl- triethoxysilane) leads to deagglomerated particles, covered by a thin polymerized aminosilane shell. A strong dependency of the particle/agglomerate size on the silane/iron oxideratio as well as on the disintegration time was found. A ratio of aminosilane to iron oxide of 0.8 (weight ratio) and a disintegration time of 72h result in overall particle sizes in the range of 10–15 nm. After surface modification, aminogroups are present on the particle surface (IEP of 9.5). The particles show superparamagnetic behaviour (saturation magnetization 68 EMU/g) and aqueous suspensions are stable against agglomeration. A desorption of the coating in aqueous suspensions (pH 3 to 11) is not observed.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.