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To determine the efficacy of 2 types of antimicrobial privacy curtains in clinical settings and the costs involved in replacing standard curtains with antimicrobial curtains.
A prospective, open-labeled, multicenter study with a follow-up duration of 6 months.
This study included 12 rooms of patients with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) (668 patient bed days) and 10 cubicles (8,839 patient bed days) in the medical, surgical, neurosurgical, orthopedics, and rehabilitation units of 10 hospitals.
Culture samples were collected from curtain surfaces twice a week for 2 weeks, followed by weekly intervals.
With a median hanging time of 173 days, antimicrobial curtain B (quaternary ammonium chlorides [QAC] plus polyorganosiloxane) was highly effective in reducing the bioburden (colony-forming units/100 cm2, 1 vs 57; P < .001) compared with the standard curtain. The percentages of MDRO contamination were also significantly lower on antimicrobial curtain B than the standard curtain: methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 0.5% vs 24% (P < .001); carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp, 0.2% vs 22.1% (P < .001); multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter spp, 0% vs 13.2% (P < .001). Notably, the median time to first contamination by MDROs was 27.6 times longer for antimicrobial curtain B than for the standard curtain (138 days vs 5 days; P = .001).
Antimicrobial curtain B (QAC plus polyorganosiloxane) but not antimicrobial curtain A (built-in silver) effectively reduced the microbial burden and MDRO contamination compared with the standard curtain, even after extended use in an active clinical setting. The antimicrobial curtain provided an opportunity to avert indirect costs related to curtain changing and laundering in addition to improving patient safety.
Recent evidence suggests that exercise plays a role in cognition and that the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) can be divided into dorsal and ventral subregions based on distinct connectivity patterns.
To examine the effect of physical activity and division of the PCC on brain functional connectivity measures in subjective memory complainers (SMC) carrying the epsilon 4 allele of apolipoprotein E (APOE 4) allele.
Participants were 22 SMC carrying the APOE ɛ4 allele (ɛ4+; mean age 72.18 years) and 58 SMC non-carriers (ɛ4–; mean age 72.79 years). Connectivity of four dorsal and ventral seeds was examined. Relationships between PCC connectivity and physical activity measures were explored.
ɛ4+ individuals showed increased connectivity between the dorsal PCC and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and the ventral PCC and supplementary motor area (SMA). Greater levels of physical activity correlated with the magnitude of ventral PCC–SMA connectivity.
The results provide the first evidence that ɛ4+ individuals at increased risk of cognitive decline show distinct alterations in dorsal and ventral PCC functional connectivity.
There is increasing evidence for the role of nutrition in the prevention of depression. This study aims to describe changes in diet quality over 12 years among participants in the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health in relation to changes in depressive symptoms. Women born between 1946 and 1951 were followed-up for 12 years (2001–2013). Dietary intake was assessed using the Dietary Questionnaire for Epidemiological Studies (version 2) in 2001, 2007 and every 2–3 years after that until 2013. Diet quality was summarised using the Australian Recommended Food Score (ARFS). Depressive symptoms were measured using the ten-item Centre for Epidemiologic Depression Scale at every 2–3-year intervals during 2001–2013. Linear mixed models were used to examine trends in diet quality and its sub-components. The same model including time-varying covariates was used to examine associations between diet quality and depressive symptoms adjusting for confounders. Sensitivity analyses were carried out using the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP) index to assess diet quality. Minimal changes in overall diet quality and its sub-components over 12 years were observed. There was a significant association between baseline diet quality and depression (β=−0·24, P=0·001), but this was lost when time-varying covariates were added (β=−0·04, P=0·10). Sensitivity analyses showed similar performance for both ARFS and MDP in predicting depressive symptoms. In conclusion, initial associations seen when using baseline measures of diet quality and depressive symptoms disappear when using methods that handle time-varying covariates, suggesting that previous studies indicating a relationship between diet and depression may have been affected by residual confounding.
The results of micromechanical tensile experiments performed on thin aluminum samples are presented and discussed. The micro tensile test system and the design of the samples, based on finite element modeling (FEM), and their production by micromachining are briefly described. Some examples of the stress strain curves are presented. The Young's modulus and critical parameters (flow and rupture stress and strains) are reported. The micro structural changes induced by the tensile experiment were observed during and after the testing by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).The results of micromechanical tensile experiments performed on thin aluminum samples are presented and discussed. The micro tensile test system and the design of the samples, based on finite element modeling (FEM), and their production by micromachining are briefly described. Some examples of the stress strain curves are presented. The Young's modulus and critical parameters (flow and rupture stress and strains) are reported. The micro structural changes induced by the tensile experiment were observed during and after the testing by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM).
The aim of this study is to examine the utilization of psychiatric services for inpatients with psychosis over a period of five years after first admission, and to identify factors that contribute to intensive service use in terms of cumulative length of in-patient treatment and readmission rate.
A cohort of 424 patients with psychotic disorders (out of a sample of 2565 first-admitted patients from a catchment area in Switzerland) was examined by means of register data.
Patients admitted for psychosis spent the longest time in hospital compared to other diagnoses, but there was considerable within-sample variation, and most patients (60.4%) had only one in-patient episode. Of the total time accumulated in this sample, 50.5% was ‘consumed’ by 10.7% of patients. Regarding the overlap between ‘heavy use’ and ‘frequent use’ (those 10% of the sample with the longest/ most frequent hospitalizations), only 39.5% of the ‘frequent users’ were also ‘heavy users’ (vice versa: 38.6%). ‘Clinical’ measures were the main predictors of the overall time spent as an in-patient (schizophrenia diagnosis, therapeutic measures, clinical improvement). Concerning ‘heavy use’, homelessness was yet another important risk factor. Sociodemographic variables (age, level of education, living alone) particularly influenced the number of hospitalizations. A younger age at first admission was predictive of ‘heavy’ and ‘frequent’ use.
Clinical and sociodemographic factors explain differences in in-patient service consumption among patients with psychosis. Efforts to devise effective interventions have to take both into account, but different measures are needed to address ‘heavy’ and ‘frequent’ use.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the consequence of Camembert consumption on the composition and metabolism of human intestinal microbiota. Camembert cheese was compared with milk fermented by yoghurt starters and Lactobacillus casei as a probiotic reference. The experimental model was the human microbiota-associated (HM) rat. HM rats were fed a basal diet (HMB group), a diet containing Camembert made from pasteurised milk (HMCp group) or a diet containing fermented milk (HMfm group). The level of micro-organisms from dairy products was measured in faeces using cultures on a specific medium and PCR–temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis. The metabolic characteristics of the caecal microbiota were also studied: SCFA, NH3, glycosidase and reductase activities, and bile acid degradations. The results showed that micro-organisms from cheese comprised 105–108 bacteria/g faecal sample in the HMCp group. Lactobacillus species from fermented milk were detected in HMfm rats. Consumption of cheese and fermented milk led to similar changes in bacterial metabolism: a decrease in azoreductase activity and NH3 concentration and an increase in mucolytic activities. However, specific changes were observed: in HMCp rats, the proportion of ursodeoxycholic resulting from chenodeoxycholic epimerisation was higher; in HMfm rats, α and β-galactosidases were higher than in other groups and both azoreductases and nitrate reductases were lower. The results show that, as for fermented milk, Camembert consumption did not greatly modify the microbiota profile or its major metabolic activities. Ingested micro-organisms were able to survive in part during intestinal transit. These dairy products exert a potentially beneficial influence on intestinal metabolism.
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