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With a decline exceeding 30% over three generations, the once-common European Turtle-dove is now considered globally threatened by IUCN. As a legal game species in 10 European countries, the recent International Single Species Action Plan for this species highlighted the need to carry out an assessment of the sustainability of current levels of hunting. In 2013–2014, the Western European population was estimated at 1.3–2.1 million pairs, and the hunting bag in the same region to be 1.1 million birds. Using the Demographic Invariant Method, we assessed whether current levels of hunting harvest within Europe constitute overexploitation of the western flyway European Turtle-dove population. We calculated the maximum growth rate λmax that a population might achieve in the absence of any additive mortality. Then we estimated the potential maximum harvestable population fraction (P) allowed by excess population growth. We explored a wide range of plausible scenarios relating to assumed demographic rates, geographic scope of the flyway and management objectives. λmax was estimated to lie between 1.551 and 1.869. Current levels of hunting along the western flyway are more than double the sustainable fraction (P) under all suitably conservative scenarios, and only fall below this threshold under the most restrictive assumptions. We conclude that current levels of legal hunting along the western flyway are unlikely to be sustainable. Reducing uncertainty associated with assessments of the sustainability of turtle dove hunting will require improved information on (in order of decreasing importance) current levels of hunting, adult survival, age structure and population size.
To explore if better diet quality scores as a measure of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) and the Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) are associated with a lower incidence of hypertension and non-fatal CVD.
Prospective analysis of the 1946–1951 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The Australian Recommended Foods Score (ARFS) was calculated as an indicator of adherence to the ADG; the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) measured adherence to the MedDiet. Outcomes included hypertension and non-fatal CVD. Generalised estimating equations estimated OR and 95 % CI across quartiles of diet quality scores.
1946–1951 cohort of the ALSWH (n 5324), without CVD, hypertension and diabetes at baseline (2001), with complete FFQ data.
There were 1342 new cases of hypertension and 629 new cases of non-fatal CVD over 15 years of follow-up. Multivariate analysis indicated that women reporting better adherence to the ARFS (≥38/74) had 15 % (95 % CI 1, 28 %; P = 0·05) lower odds of hypertension and 46 % (95 % CI 6, 66 %; P = 0·1) lower odds of non-fatal CVD. Women reporting better adherence to the MDS (≥8/17) had 27 % (95 % CI 15, 47 %; P = 0·0006) lower odds of hypertension and 30 % (95 % CI 2, 50 %; P = 0·03) lower odds of non-fatal CVD.
Better adherence to diet quality scores is associated with lower risk of hypertension and non-fatal CVD. These results support the need for updated evidenced based on the ADG as well as public health nutrition policies in Australia.
The hydrated carbonate mineral ikaite (CaCO3·6H2O) is thermodynamically unstable at all known conditions on Earth. Regardless, ikaite has been found in marine sediments, as tufa columns and in sea ice. The reason for these occurrences remains unknown. However, cold temperatures (<6°C), high pH and the presence of Mg2+ and SO42– in these settings have been suggested as factors that promote ikaite formation. Here we show that Mg concentration and pH are primary controls of ikaite precipitation at 5°C. In our experiments a sodium carbonate solution was mixed with seawater at a temperature of 5°C and at a constant rate. To test the effect of Mg2+ and SO42– we used synthetic seawater which allowed us to remove these elements from the seawater. The pH was controlled by different ratios of Na2CO3 and NaHCO3 in the carbonate solution. We found that ikaite precipitated when both seawater and synthetic seawater from which SO4 had been removed were used in the experiments. However, ikaite did not precipitate in experiments conducted with synthetic seawater from which Mg had been removed. In these experiments, calcite precipitated instead of ikaite. By varying the Mg concentration of the synthetic seawater and the pH of the sodium carbonate solution, we constructed a kinetic stability diagram for ikaite and calcite as a function of Mg concentration and pH. One possible explanation of our finding is that Mg2+ inhibits calcite nucleation and thereby allows metastable ikaite to form instead.
Structure from motion (SfM) mapping is a photogrammetric technique that offers a cost-effective means of creating three-dimensional (3-D) visual representations from overlapping digital photographs. The technique is now used more frequently to document the archaeological record. We demonstrate the utility of SfM by studying red scoria bodies known as pukao from Rapa Nui (Easter Island, Chile). We created 3-D images of 50 pukao that once adorned the massive statues (moai) of Rapa Nui and compare them to 13 additional pukao located in Puna Pau, the island's red scoria pukao quarry. Through SfM, we demonstrate that the majority of these bodies have petroglyphs and other surface features that are relevant to archaeological explanation and are currently at risk of continued degradation.
Archaeological fieldwork preceding housing development revealed a Mesolithic site in a primary context. A central hearth was evident from a cluster of calcined flint and bone, the latter producing a modelled date for the start of occupation at 8220–7840 cal bc and ending at 7960–7530 cal bc (95% probability). The principal activity was the knapping of bladelets, the blanks for microlith production. Impact-damaged microliths indicated the re-tooling of hunting weaponry, while microwear analysis of other tools demonstrated hide working and butchery activity at the site. The lithics can be classified as a Honey Hill assemblage type on the basis of distinctive leaf-shaped microlithic points with inverse basal retouch.
Such assemblages have a known concentration in central England and are thought to be temporally intermediate between the conventional British Early and Late Mesolithic periods. The lithic assemblage is compared to other Honey Hill type and related Horsham type assemblages from south-eastern England. Both assemblage types are termed Middle Mesolithic and may be seen as part of wider developments in the late Preboreal and Boreal periods of north-west Europe. Rapid climatic warming at this time saw the northward expansion of deciduous woodland into north-west Europe. Emerging new ecosystems presented changes in resource patterns and the Middle Mesolithic lithic typo-technological developments reflect novel foraging strategies as adaptations to the new opportunities of Boreal forest conditions. While Honey Hill-type assemblages are seen as part of such wider processes their distinctive typological signature attests to autochthonous, regional developments of human groups infilling the landscape. Such cultural insularity may reflect changing social boundaries with reduction in mobility range and physical isolation caused by rising sea level and the creation of the British archipelago.
Disaster responders are frequently emergency physicians (EPs). Effective response is enhanced by the strong support of home institutions and clear policies for backfill of regular duties. A group of disaster medicine responders and researchers worked with an academic department of emergency medicine to create a policy that addresses concerns of deploying physicians, colleagues remaining at the home institution, and administrators. This article describes the process and content of this policy development work.
KahnCA, KoenigKL, SchultzCH. Emergency Physician Disaster Deployment: Issues to Consider and a Model Policy. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2017;32(4):462–464.
The probability of failure (failure rate) is a key input parameter to integrity monitoring systems used for safety, liability or mission critical applications. A standard approach in the design of Global Positioning System (GPS) integrity monitoring is to utilise the service commitment on the probability of major service failure, often by applying a conservative factor. This paper addresses the question of what factor is appropriate by applying Bayesian inference to real and hypothetical fault histories.
Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) anomalies include clock or signal transmission type faults which are punctual (may occur at any time) and incorrect ephemeris data which are broadcast for a nominal two hours. These two types of anomaly, classified as continuous and discrete respectively are addressed. Bounds on the total probability of failure are obtained with given confidence levels subject to well defined hypotheses relating past to future performance. Factors for the GPS service commitment of 10−5 per hour per satellite are obtained within the range two to five with high confidence (up to 1–10−9).
Here we report two types of skeletal deformities, ‘pughead’ and ‘short-tail’, observed for the first time in the adult Atlantic goliath grouper (Epinephelus itajara). Photographic documentation of these deformities was made for only three individuals during our studies of their spawning aggregations. ‘Pugheadedness’ was documented in Brazil and Florida, and the ‘short-tail’ deformity was documented only in Brazil. Skeletal deformities are rare, have very low frequencies in wild populations and appear to be initiated during early development. There was no apparent effect of the condition on the adult goliath grouper, as they appeared robust and healthy.
Malnutrition in Africa has not improved compared with other regions in the world. Investment in the build-up of a strong African research workforce is essential to provide contextual solutions to the nutritional problems of Africa. To orientate this process, we reviewed nutrition research carried out in Africa and published during the last decade.
We assessed nutrition research from Africa published between 2000 and 2010 from MEDLINE and EMBASE and analysed the study design and type of intervention for studies indexed with major MeSH terms for vitamin A deficiency, protein–energy malnutrition, obesity, breast-feeding, nutritional status and food security. Affiliations of first authors were visualised as a network and power of affiliations was assessed using centrality metrics.
Africans, all age groups.
Most research on the topics was conducted in Southern (36 %) and Western Africa (34 %). The intervention studies (9 %; n 95) mainly tested technological and curative approaches to the nutritional problems. Only for papers on protein–energy malnutrition and obesity did lead authorship from Africa exceed that from non-African affiliations. The 10 % most powerfully connected affiliations were situated mainly outside Africa for publications on vitamin A deficiency, breast-feeding, nutritional status and food security.
The development of the evidence base for nutrition research in Africa is focused on treatment and the potential for cross-African networks to publish nutrition research from Africa remains grossly underutilised. Efforts to build capacity for effective nutrition action in Africa will require forging a true academic partnership between African and non-African research institutions.
Catherine Esnouf, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Marie Russel, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique (INRA), Paris,Nicolas Bricas, Centre de Co-opération Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement (CIRAD), Paris
When dealing with the sustainability of food systems, the spatial dimension merits particular attention. On the one hand, growing urbanisation and urban sprawl in different parts of the world raise questions regarding the sustainability of food supply systems for urban populations. On the other hand, the location of different activities in food systems has a strong effect on the environmental assessment of food systems.
This chapter is distinctive from current scientific literature insofar as the sustainability of food systems is analysed, first, in terms of food supplies to cities, and second, by focusing on location strategies relative to production, processing and distribution activities linked to urban dynamics.
Sustainably feeding large cities: a major challenge
The challenges of food sustainability cannot be fully understood without taking account of the spatial dynamics of consumption, distribution, processing and production activities in different countries of the world. On the one hand, changes to diets and consumption practices have exerted a major impact on the spatial organisation of the agricultural and food sectors and hence on greenhouse gas emissions and the amount of energy consumed for the shipment of commodities.