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A central component of primates’ social ontogeny is play with conspecifics. Play is constrained by ecological factors, especially food abundance, and social play is most likely limited by partner availability, which in turn can be related to ecology. However, how much social and ecological factors collectively influence social play rates has not yet been investigated. We used a multivariate approach to test to what degree fruit and partner availability affected social play rates of wild immature chimpanzees in Taï National Park. As fruit abundance and partner availability increased, infant and juvenile play rates rose, with juvenile play being affected more by fruit abundance than infant play. Partner availability predicted infant play rates better during the low than the high fruit availability season, which was not the case for juvenile play. Our results indicate that young chimpanzees face a trade-off in allocating time or energy to foraging and social play, with foraging becoming increasingly dominant with age. This joint analysis of social and ecological factors suggests that food abundance modulates the effect of partner availability on social play rates in young chimpanzees.
Hard-core smokers have been identified as a potential public health challenge. The trans-theoretical model lacks the specificity to identify hard-core smokers. The precaution adoption process model (PAPM) is a stage-based behaviour change model which includes ‘no intent to quit’ as a distinct stage and so may be useful in identifying hard-core smokers.
The aim of this study was to apply the PAPM to a community based sample of smokers to determine whether it provides a useful approach to identifying hard-core smokers.
We surveyed smokers in Australia who were recruited through social media and an online data collection agency.
The sample included 336 current smokers, 11.9% were in Stage 4 of the PAPM – i.e. had decided not to quit. Stage 4 smokers are more resistant to quitting and marked by their similarities to hard-core smokers. This is further amplified when addressing Stage 4 smokers with no previous quit attempt.
Stage 4 smokers with no previous quit attempts are aligned with a hard-core smoker profile with higher levels of nicotine dependence, greater cigarette consumption and low socio-economic status. Further research is required to determine if PAPM is a valid predictive model for identifying hard-core smokers in clinical practice.
Reflecting on present unease about structural biases in the discipline, and aiming to offer a data-rich response to some recent criticisms of this Journal, the Editorial Board has undertaken a study of the representation of female scholars in the Journal of Roman Studies. To that end, we have gathered data on publications, submissions and JRS Editorial Board membership for the past fifteen years, from Volume 95 (2005) through to the present volume, Volume 109 (2019). The data are set out in the final section (VII), following a brief review of the main results. Our goal here is neither to present a definitive analysis, nor to offer a commentary on the underlying causes of the patterns revealed (on which we expect much fruitful discussion elsewhere). Rather, the JRS Editorial Board aims to make key data available both to inform a much wider debate within the profession as a whole and, importantly, to inform this Journal’s policies, procedures and active outreach. The Board is also acutely aware that any analysis of gender bias needs to be framed carefully — both by an awareness that there are other under-represented groups in the discipline (on which our data in their current form would regrettably only offer a most imperfect picture), and by a sensitivity to the limitations of a conception of gender as a simple binary.
The diet of most adults is low in fish and, therefore, provides limited quantities of the long-chain, omega-3 fatty acids (LCn-3FAs), eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA, DHA). Since these compounds serve important roles in the brain, we sought to determine if healthy adults with low-LCn-3FA consumption would exhibit improvements in neuropsychological performance and parallel changes in brain morphology following repletion through fish oil supplementation.
In a randomized, controlled trial, 271 mid-life adults (30–54 years of age, 118 men, 153 women) consuming ⩽300 mg/day of LCn-3FAs received 18 weeks of supplementation with fish oil capsules (1400 mg/day of EPA and DHA) or matching placebo. All participants completed a neuropsychological test battery examining four cognitive domains: psychomotor speed, executive function, learning/episodic memory, and fluid intelligence. A subset of 122 underwent neuroimaging before and after supplementation to measure whole-brain and subcortical tissue volumes.
Capsule adherence was over 95%, participant blinding was verified, and red blood cell EPA and DHA levels increased as expected. Supplementation did not affect performance in any of the four cognitive domains. Exploratory analyses revealed that, compared to placebo, fish oil supplementation improved executive function in participants with low-baseline DHA levels. No changes were observed in any indicator of brain morphology.
In healthy mid-life adults reporting low-dietary intake, supplementation with LCn-3FAs in moderate dose for moderate duration did not affect neuropsychological performance or brain morphology. Whether salutary effects occur in individuals with particularly low-DHA exposure requires further study.
Two field experiments were conducted during 2018 at Paskeville and Arthurton, South Australia, to identify effective herbicide options for the control of thiocarbamate-resistant rigid ryegrass in wheat. Dose–response experiments confirmed resistance in both field populations (T1 and A18) of rigid ryegrass to triallate, prosulfocarb, trifluralin, and pyroxasulfone. T1 and A18 were 17.9- and 20-fold more resistant to triallate than susceptible SLR4. The level of resistance detected in T1 to prosulfocarb (5.9-fold) and pyroxasulfone (4-fold) was lower compared to A18, which displayed 12.1- and 7.8-fold resistance to both herbicides, respectively. Despite resistance, the mixture of two different preplant-incorporated (PPI) site-of-action herbicides improved rigid ryegrass control and wheat yield compared to a single PPI herbicide only. Prosulfocarb + triallate and prosulfocarb + S-metolachlor + triallate did not reduce rigid ryegrass seed set when compared to prosulfocarb applied alone at the higher rate (2,400 g ai ha–1). Pyroxasulfone + triallate PPI followed by glyphosate (1,880 g ai ha-1) as a weed seed set control treatment reduced rigid ryegrass seed production by 93% and 95% at both sites, respectively. These herbicides also significantly improved grain yield of wheat at Paskeville (22%) and Arthurton (38%) compared to the untreated.
While echocardiographic parameters are used to quantify ventricular function in infants with single ventricle physiology, there are few data comparing these to invasive measurements. This study correlates echocardiographic measures of diastolic function with ventricular end-diastolic pressure in infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis.
Data from 173 patients enrolled in the Pediatric Heart Network Infant Single Ventricle enalapril trial were analysed. Those with mixed ventricular types (n = 17) and one outlier (end-diastolic pressure = 32 mmHg) were excluded from the analysis, leaving a total sample size of 155 patients. Echocardiographic measurements were correlated to end-diastolic pressure using Spearman’s test.
Median age at echocardiogram was 4.6 (range 2.5–7.4) months. Median ventricular end-diastolic pressure was 7 (range 3–19) mmHg. Median time difference between the echocardiogram and catheterisation was 0 days (range −35 to 59 days). Examining the entire cohort of 155 patients, no echocardiographic diastolic function variable correlated with ventricular end-diastolic pressure. When the analysis was limited to the 86 patients who had similar sedation for both studies, the systolic:diastolic duration ratio had a significant but weak negative correlation with end-diastolic pressure (r = −0.3, p = 0.004). The remaining echocardiographic variables did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure.
In this cohort of infants with single ventricle physiology prior to superior cavopulmonary anastomosis, most conventional echocardiographic measures of diastolic function did not correlate with ventricular end-diastolic pressure at cardiac catheterisation. These limitations should be factored into the interpretation of quantitative echo data in this patient population.
Preferential dissolution of the biogenic carbonate polymorph aragonite promotes preservational bias in shelly marine faunas. While field studies have documented the impact of preferential aragonite dissolution on fossil molluscan diversity, its impact on regional and global biodiversity metrics is debated. Epicontinental seas are especially prone to conditions that both promote and inhibit preferential dissolution, which may result in spatially extensive zones with variable preservation. Here we present a multifaceted evaluation of aragonite dissolution within the Late Cretaceous Western Interior Seaway of North America. Occurrence data of mollusks from two time intervals (Cenomanian/Turonian boundary, early Campanian) are plotted on new high-resolution paleogeographies to assess aragonite preservation within the seaway. Fossil occurrences, diversity estimates, and sampling probabilities for calcitic and aragonitic fauna were compared in zones defined by depth and distance from the seaway margins. Apparent range sizes, which could be influenced by differential preservation potential of aragonite between separate localities, were also compared. Our results are consistent with exacerbated aragonite dissolution within specific depth zones for both time slices, with aragonitic bivalves additionally showing a statistically significant decrease in range size compared with calcitic fauna within carbonate-dominated Cenomanian–Turonian strata. However, we are unable to conclusively show that aragonite dissolution impacted diversity estimates. Therefore, while aragonite dissolution is likely to have affected the preservation of fauna in specific localities, time averaging and instantaneous preservation events preserve regional biodiversity. Our results suggest that the spatial expression of taphonomic biases should be an important consideration for paleontologists working on paleobiogeographic problems.
Environmental scientists and managers increasingly recognize that socio-cultural evaluations expand the understanding of human–nature relationships. Here, user groups’ perceptions of the benefits from and threats to nature were analysed in Tierra del Fuego National Park, Argentina. We hypothesized that the different relationships of users to this place would lead to significantly different valuations among local Ushuaia residents (n = 122), Argentine nationals (n = 147) and international tourists (n = 294). All users perceived a broad spectrum of benefits. The three groups assessed intrinsic and relational values more highly than instrumental benefits, and significant differences included a higher mean valuation of benefits by Argentine visitors. Overall, threats were less perceived than benefits, and significant differences included a higher mean threat assessment by Ushuaia residents. To explain these relationships, we found that mean valuations of benefits and threats were weakly related to increased biodiversity knowledge for residents and international tourists, but not for Argentine visitors. These findings can orient environmental management in Patagonia and elsewhere by identifying areas where information can improve user experiences and by contributing a more pluralistic understanding of nature from multiple stakeholders.
Schizophrenia remains one of the most severe medical diseases. Current dopamine modulating first-generation and second-generation antipsychotics target mainly positive symptoms, but not/inadequately negative and cognitive symptoms. Additional challenges include non-adherence and adverse effects, especially cardiometabolic dysregulation. This review evaluates new/emerging pharmacological treatments for schizophrenia. Therapies targeting total symptoms include cannabidiol, D3 antagonist/5-HT1A partial agonist F17464, lumateperone (ITI-007), phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A) inhibitors MK-8189 and TAK-063, sodium nitroprusside, and trace amine-associated receptor-1 (TAAR1) agonist RO5263397 and SEP-363856. Treatments targeting negative symptoms include the PDE10A inhibitor LuAF-11167, 5-HT2A inverse agonist pimavanserin, sigma-2/5-HT2A antagonist roluperidone (MIN-101), and d-amino acid oxidase (DAAO) inhibitor TAK-831. Agents targeting primarily cognitive dysfunction are the glycine transporter-1 inhibitor BI-425809 and cannabidiol. Therapies targeting residual positive symptoms/treatment-resistant schizophrenia include pimavanserin, dopamine D1/D2 antagonist LuAF-35700, and DAAO inhibitor sodium benzoate. Two new long-acting injectable antipsychotic formulations, Aripiprazole Lauroxil NanoCrystal® and the first subcutaneous injectable LAI Perseris (RBP-7000), were recently approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration, and positive results were announced for Risperidone ISM®, each achieving therapeutic levels within 24 hours, without need for initial oral cotreatment/loading injection-strategies. Paliperidone palmitate 6-monthly intramuscularly injectable and Risperidone subcutaneously injectable TV46000 are currently under investigation. Finally, the samidorphan+olanzapine combination targets reduced weight gain liability, while maintaining olanzapine’s efficacy. Most of these trial programs are still ongoing or have yielded mixed or even negative results. Thus, additional mechanisms of action and agents require study to improve schizophrenia outcomes for total/positive symptoms with reduced adverse effects, but also cognitive symptoms, negative symptoms, and treatment resistance, the areas of greatest need in schizophrenia currently.
Sintered nanoparticle structures are macroscopically brittle but quite robust if deposited on a flexible substrate. The effects of a polymer substrate on the stretchability of both brittle and ductile coatings and traces are well established. Systematic effects of substrate properties on the fatigue resistance of aerosol printed nano-Ag are slightly more complex. The present work is focused on the early stages of fatigue, where the resistance increases significantly but cracks are not yet visible. Overall, the fatigue behavior is seen to vary with the combination of substrate modulus and viscoelastic deformation properties. Comparing two common polyimides, the rate of damage was seen to increase faster with increasing amplitude on the less compliant one. Consistently with this increasing the minimum strain in the cycle led to a significantly stronger reduction in damage rates. However, the damage rate remained lower on the less compliant substrate at all amplitudes and strain ranges of practical concern.
The Southern African Radiocarbon Database (SARD) is a new online, open-access database of published radiocarbon dates from southern African archaeological contexts. Compatible with the calibration, Bayesian modelling and mapping functionality of the OxCal software, the SARD will greatly assist in the documentation and analysis of chronological trends across the subcontinent. This article introduces the database and presents two case studies that demonstrate its utility and its integration with OxCal, comparing the temporal distribution of radiocarbon dates in two archaeologically well-investigated regions, and assessing the timing of Middle to Later Stone Age technological developments across the African subcontinent.
The aim of this paper is to examine the current state of research on tolerance-induced costs in Germany. Through a literature research already existing approaches for the determination of costs related to tolerances during the specification of technical components are pointed out and possible approaches for the reduction of these costs are presented. In addition, the actuality of these approaches will be considered. One question that is supposed to be answered here is to what state of standard for the specification of components these approaches can be assigned to. On the other hand, it should be clarified whether the existing approaches are applicable to the currently valid standard system of the Geometrical Product Specification (GPS).
Can the economic efficiency of the specifications selected for tolerancing be determined in a technical drawing during the product development process in accordance with GPS on the basis of the current state of research?
Most network studies rely on a measured network that differs from the underlying network which is obfuscated by measurement errors. It is well known that such errors can have a severe impact on the reliability of network metrics, especially on centrality measures: a more central node in the observed network might be less central in the underlying network. Previous studies have dealt either with the general effects of measurement errors on centrality measures or with the treatment of erroneous network data. In this paper, we propose a method for estimating the impact of measurement errors on the reliability of a centrality measure, given the measured network and assumptions about the type and intensity of the measurement error. This method allows researchers to estimate the robustness of a centrality measure in a specific network and can, therefore, be used as a basis for decision-making. In our experiments, we apply this method to random graphs and real-world networks. We observe that our estimation is, in the vast majority of cases, a good approximation for the robustness of centrality measures. Beyond this, we propose a heuristic to decide whether the estimation procedure should be used. We analyze, for certain networks, why the eigenvector centrality is less robust than, among others, the pagerank. Finally, we give recommendations on how our findings can be applied to future network studies.
Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a concept for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission that will achieve ground-breaking science in the fields of galaxy evolution, cosmology, Milky Way, and the Solar System. It is the follow-up space mission to Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST), boosting its scientific return by obtaining deep 1–4 μm slit spectroscopy for ∼70% of all galaxies imaged by the ∼2 000 deg2 WFIRST High Latitude Survey at z > 0.5. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy will measure accurate and precise redshifts for ∼200 M galaxies out to z < 7, and deliver spectra that enable a wide range of diagnostic studies of the physical properties of galaxies over most of cosmic history. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe and WFIRST together will produce a 3D map of the Universe over 2 000 deg2, the definitive data sets for studying galaxy evolution, probing dark matter, dark energy and modifications of General Relativity, and quantifying the 3D structure and stellar content of the Milky Way. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe science spans four broad categories: (1) Revolutionising galaxy evolution studies by tracing the relation between galaxies and dark matter from galaxy groups to cosmic voids and filaments, from the epoch of reionisation through the peak era of galaxy assembly; (2) Opening a new window into the dark Universe by weighing the dark matter filaments using 3D weak lensing with spectroscopic redshifts, and obtaining definitive measurements of dark energy and modification of General Relativity using galaxy clustering; (3) Probing the Milky Way’s dust-enshrouded regions, reaching the far side of our Galaxy; and (4) Exploring the formation history of the outer Solar System by characterising Kuiper Belt Objects. Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe is a 1.5 m telescope with a field of view of 0.4 deg2, and uses digital micro-mirror devices as slit selectors. It has a spectroscopic resolution of R = 1 000, and a wavelength range of 1–4 μm. The lack of slit spectroscopy from space over a wide field of view is the obvious gap in current and planned future space missions; Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy fills this big gap with an unprecedented spectroscopic capability based on digital micro-mirror devices (with an estimated spectroscopic multiplex factor greater than 5 000). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy is designed to fit within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration probe-class space mission cost envelope; it has a single instrument, a telescope aperture that allows for a lighter launch vehicle, and mature technology (we have identified a path for digital micro-mirror devices to reach Technology Readiness Level 6 within 2 yr). Astrophysics Telescope for Large Area Spectroscopy Probe will lead to transformative science over the entire range of astrophysics: from galaxy evolution to the dark Universe, from Solar System objects to the dusty regions of the Milky Way.
Five populations of rigid ryegrass (Lolium rigidum Gaudin) from fields across cropping regions in southern Australia were suspected of having resistance to thiocarbamates, chloroacetamides, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides. Resistant (R) populations 375-14, 198-15, 16.2, EP162, RAC1, and A18 and two susceptible (S) populations (SLR4 and VLR1) were included in a dose–response study. All suspected R populations expressed resistance to one or all herbicides (thiocarbamates, chloroacetamides, and pyroxasulfone). Population 198-15 exhibited the highest LD50 to triallate (44.7-fold), prosulfocarb (45.7-fold), S-metolachlor (31.5-fold), and metazachlor (27.2-fold) compared with the S populations. Populations 198-15 and 375-14 were also resistant to pyroxasulfone (13.5- and 14.9-fold) compared with the S populations, as was population EP162. This study documents the first case of field-evolved resistance to thiocarbamate, chloroacetamide, and sulfonylisoxazoline herbicides in L. rigidum.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The National HIV/AIDS strategy aims to increase retention in care (RIC) to reduce HIV transmission and mortality. Previous studies have evaluated clinic-level interventions such as appointment reminders and peer navigation. However, few studies have investigated the association between multiple clinic-level factors and RIC among PLWH across the United States. We conducted a multi-site cohort study to identify clinic-level factors associated with RIC in the United States from 2010-2016. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: We included PLWH with at least one HIV primary care visit from 2010-2016 at seven sites of the Center for AIDS Research (CFAR) Network of Integrated Clinical Systems (CNICS). Individual-level data collected as part of routine clinical care were abstracted from the electronic health record. Clinic-level data were gathered through a survey and included questions on site characteristics (i.e. clinic volume) as well as services available at the site during each year of the study: peer navigation, RIC posters/brochures, laboratory test timing, flexible scheduling, appointment reminder types, and stigma support services defined as intensive HIV education and advocacy regarding support to address stigma at outreach visits. RIC was defined as ≥2 encounters per year, ≥90 days apart, observed until death, administrative censoring (December 31, 2016), or loss to follow-up (no visit for >12 months with no future visits). Poisson panel regression with robust error variance, clustering by site and adjusting for calendar year, age (modeled with a cubic spline), sex, race/ethnicity, and HIV transmission risk factor, was used to estimate incident rate ratios (IRR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) for RIC. Clustering by site has been shown to absorb for clustering that could occur at the individual level as well. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 21,046 patients contributing 103,348 person-years, 67% of person-years were RIC. Text appointment reminders (IRR = 1.13; 95% CI: 1.03-1.24) and stigma support services (IRR=1.11; 95% CI:1.04-1.19) were significantly associated with RIC. RIC disparities in individual-level patient characteristics were observed even after accounting for clinic-level characteristics. Older patients were more likely to be RIC demonstrated through year comparisons due to the use of a spline; for age 50 years (IRR = 1.07, 95% CI: 1.06-1.08) and 60 years (IRR = 1.15, 95% CI: 1.13-1.17) compared to 45 years. Female PLWH were more likely to be RIC compared to males (IRR = 1.03, 95% CI: 1.02-1.05) and Hispanic PLWH were more likely to be RIC compared to white, non-Hispanic PLWH (IRR = 1.09, 95% CI: 1.05-1.13). Although commonly found to be associated with worse RIC, Black race and injection drug use were not associated with RIC in this population. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: In this multi-site US cohort study from 2010-2016, availability of text appointment reminders and stigma support services at a clinic were associated with approximately 10% higher probability of RIC than at clinics without those services. RIC disparities persisted with respect to individual-level characteristics of age, sex, and race/ethnicity even after accounting for these clinic-level factors. Prospective studies examining the impact of these clinic-level factors and individual-level uptake of these services on RIC are needed.
The short-term impact of prolonged grief disorder (PGD) following bereavement is well documented. The longer term sequelae of PGD however are poorly understood, possibly unrecognized, and may be incorrectly attributed to other mental health disorders and hence undertreated.
The aims of this study were to prospectively evaluate the prevalence of PGD three years post bereavement and to examine the predictors of long-term PGD in a population-based cohort of bereaved cancer caregivers.
A cohort of primary family caregivers of patients admitted to one of three palliative care services in Melbourne, Australia, participated in the study (n = 301). Sociodemographic, mental health, and bereavement-related data were collected from the caregiver upon the patient's admission to palliative care (T1). Further data addressing circumstances around the death and psychological health were collected at six (T2, n = 167), 13 (T3, n = 143), and 37 months (T4, n = 85) after bereavement.
At T4, 5% and 14% of bereaved caregivers met criteria for PGD and subthreshold PGD, respectively. Applying the total PGD score at T4, linear regression analysis found preloss anticipatory grief measured at T1 and self-reported coping measured at T2 were highly statistically significant predictors (both p < 0.0001) of PGD in the longer term.
For almost 20% of caregivers, the symptoms of PGD appear to persist at least three years post bereavement. These findings support the importance of screening caregivers upon the patient's admission to palliative care and at six months after bereavement to ascertain their current mental health. Ideally, caregivers at risk of developing PGD can be identified and treated before PGD becomes entrenched.
Based on density functional theory, we recently suggested that metastable α-WB2 is a promising candidate combining very high hardness with high toughness. These calculations further suggested that the addition of Tantalum supports the crystallization of α-structured W1−xTaxB2−z, with only minor reduction in toughness. Thus, various Ta containing WB2-based coatings have been synthesized using physical vapor deposition. With increasing Ta content, the hardness increases from ~41 GPa (WB2) to ~45 GPa (W0.74Ta0.26B2). In situ micromechanical cantilever bending tests exhibit fracture toughness KIC values of 3.7 to 3.0 MPa√m for increasing Ta content (single-phased up to 26 at.% Ta).