Functional and mechanical properties of modern devices are directly controlled by the stress and strain state acting on the materials within. For manufacturers, elastic strain engineering of complex materials systems throughout processing and utilization is crucial. This requires methodologies with ever-increasing spatial and temporal resolutions. On the other hand, the nanoscale elastic strain field around individual defects fundamentally controls the deformation of crystalline materials. To date, a variety of techniques are available for measuring elastic strain, including transmission electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and x-ray diffraction. Recent advances in instrumentation have dramatically improved speed and resolution, enabling direct elastic strain mapping during in situ deformation at the nanoscale. In addition, plastic strain can be determined during deformation using digital image correlation. Current techniques are surveyed here to accurately quantify complex strain fields at the nanoscale and their potential to resolve scientific challenges in materials science.