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Adenomyosis is a common disorder in the gynecologic population that consists of the presence of endometrial glands and stroma in the myometrium. Adenomyosis is associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and feelings of pressure low in the pelvis due to uterine enlargement. Infection of the pelvis causes pain by several different mechanisms: pelvic inflammatory disease, puerperal infections, postoperative gynecologic surgery, and abortion-related infections. Pelvic congestion syndrome (PCS) is a pelvic pain syndrome caused by retrograde flow in an incompetent ovarian vein. Symptoms associated with PCS include a shifting location of pain, deep dyspareunia, and postcoital pain, with exacerbation of symptoms after prolonged standing. Ultrasound is a very useful tool for evaluating chronic pelvic pain sufferers. Patients have better satisfaction due to their understanding of their pain, with a goal of better productivity and return to normal function.
This chapter discusses the outcome of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in medically complicated patients. A confounding factor for IVF pregnancies is the increased number of multiple pregnancies and the relatively increased number of high-risk pregnancies among women with chronic medical problems. Cancer patients present particular challenges to the IVF unit. Standard IVF protocols are used for controlled ovarian hyperstimulation in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) discordant couples. The main concerns about IVF and malignant disease relate to the issue of the potential delay in the starting of the patient's chemotherapy or of any possible effect of hormonal changes on the cancer. Obesity might affect the outcome of IVF and pregnancy, but with careful management, a good outcome can be achieved. It has been suggested that systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) may reduce the success of IVF-ET. The presence of antinuclear antibodies may reduce the implantation rate in IVF patients.
The successful treatment of endometriosis-associated symptoms typically requires surgical as well as medical intervention. Progestogens are efficacious and inexpensive treatment of pelvic endometriosis. A variety of medications have been used as add-back therapy in addition to gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist for treatment of endometriosis which includes progestogen alone, progestogen and estrogen combination, or progestogen and bisphosphonates. GnRH antagonists have been used for the treatment of pelvic endometriosis; however, they have not been as widely accepted as GnRH agonists. Selective progesterone receptor modulators introduce a new dimension in the medical treatment of endometriosis. Aromatase inhibitors which inhibit estrogen production in endometriotic implants are an attractive option for the management of endometriosis. Antiangiogenesis therapy has been investigated in rodents, demonstrated that angiostatic agents prevent the development of endometriosis-like lesions in the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Nonsteroidal inflammatory drugs are very helpful in pelvic pain and dysmenorrhea associated with endometriosis.
Hyperprolactinemia has a detrimental effect on fertility both in women and men, leading to galactorrhea anovulation, amenorrhea, oligomenorrhea, impotence, gynecomastia, and low semen profile. Men with hyperprolactinemia not only show abnormal semen analysis but also abnormal histological structure of the testicles with distorted seminiferous tubules and abnormal sertoli cells. Many physiological and or pathological changes involving lactotroph cells can result in hyperprolactinemia. The majority of prolactinomas contains only lactotroph cells and produce prolactin in excess. Antihypertensive drugs like methyldopa and reserpine increases prolactin secretion. A dopamine agonist drug should usually be the first line of treatment for patients with hyperprolactinemia of any cause including lactotroph adenomas of all sizes. Bromocriptine, cabergoline, pergolide are the available dopamine agonists to treat hyperprolactinemia. Dopamine agonists decrease prolactin secretion and reduce the size of the lactotroph adenoma in more than 90 percent of patients. Surgical and radiation treatment are also useful.
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