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Focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) has been incorporated into the initial evaluation of trauma for decades. It is an important screening tool in the detection of intra-abdominal fluid. The objective of this study was to perform a systematic review of the use and accuracy of FAST as an imaging tool for blunt abdominal trauma in disaster/mass casualty settings. A systematic review of literature was conducted using key words and search terms. Two independent reviewers screened abstracts to determine inclusion using the Quality Assessment of Diagnostic Accuracy Studies (QUADAS). For studies passing QUADAS, a meta-analysis was performed calculating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). FAST results were compared with the gold standard, which was a combination of CT scan results, operative findings, and medical records of the clinical course. Initial database screening resulted in 133 articles, of which 21 were selected for QUADAS evaluation. Five studies passed QUADAS and were selected in the final meta-analysis, with a total of 4263 patients. The sensitivity of FAST was 92.1% (87.8–95.6), specificity 98.7% (96.0–99.9), PPV 90.7% (70.0–98.0), and NPV 98.8% (98.1–99.5) for the detection of intra-abdominal injury. In our meta-analysis, FAST was both sensitive and specific in the evaluation of trauma in the disaster setting.
The systematic excavation, long term storage, inventory, and analysis of complete human skeletal remains is a new concept in East Asia. This study examined four problematic cases where there was a demonstrated need for the implementation of conservation techniques. The first case included several naturally mummified skulls from Xinjiang, Province, China. Salt crystals were found to be solidifying on the outer table. The second case involved four naturally mummified cave burials from southwestern Mongolia. Once removed from the dry environment, they began to decompose again. The two last cases were permafrost burials in northern Mongolia. The skeletons were wrapped and stored in a manner which encouraged mold growth. This study will give recommendations for thorough archaeological recovery, cleaning, packaging for transport, reconstruction, and long-term storage of human skeletal remains.
This paper describes three case examples from a recent trial of family intervention specifically designed for people of African-Caribbean descent. These examples, told from the therapists’ perspectives, highlight key components of the intervention and issues that arose in working with this client group. Findings from the study suggest that it is possible to engage this client-group in family therapy similar to traditional evidenced-based family interventions, although as illustrated in the paper, it is important that therapists pay attention to themes that are likely to be particularly pertinent for this group, including experiences of discrimination and mistrust of services. The use of Family Support Members, consisting of members of the person's care team or volunteers recruited from the community, may also help support people to engage in therapy in the absence of biological relatives.
The objective of this paper is to present a qualitative study of introducing substance misuse screening using the Screening Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) model, in primary care in Abu Dhabi.
Substance misuse in the UAE is an increasing problem. However religious beliefs and fear of legal consequences have prevented this topic from being openly discussed, risk levels identified through screening and treatment options offered.
A controlled trial was undertaken which included a qualitative process study which is reported here. Qualitative interviews with primary care physicians from two intervention clinics were undertaken to explore their views, experiences and attitudes towards substance misuse management in their clinic. Physicians were trained on SBIRT and on the research project process and documentation. At completion of the project, 10 months after the training, physicians (n=17) were invited to participate in an interview to explore their experiences of training and implementation of SBIRT. Interviews were recorded and transcribed. Inductive thematic coding was applied.
In total, 11 physicians were interviewed and three main themes emerged: (1) The SBIRT screening project, (2) cultural issues and (3) patient follow-up. Findings revealed a general willingness toward the concept of screening and delivering brief interventions in primary care although increased workload and uncertainties about remuneration for the service may be a barrier to future implementation. There was a perceived problem of substance misuse that was not currently being met and a strong perception that patients were not willing to reveal substance use due cultural barriers and fear of police involvement. In conclusion this qualitative process evaluation provided essential insight into implementing SBIRT in the Middle East. In conclusion, despite physician willingness and a clinical need for a substance misuse care pathway, the reluctance among patients to admit to substance use in this culture needs to be addressed to enable successful implementation.
In the fast pace of the Emergency Department (ED), clinicians are in need of tailored screening tools to detect seniors who are at risk of adverse outcomes. We aimed to explore the usefulness of the Bergman-Paris Question (BPQ) to expose potential undetected geriatric syndromes in community-living seniors presenting to the ED.
This is a planned sub-study of the INDEED multicentre prospective cohort study, including independent or semi-independent seniors (≥65 years old) admitted to hospital after an ED stay ≥8 hours and who were not delirious. Patients were assessed using validated screening tests for 3 geriatric syndromes: cognitive and functional impairment, and frailty. The BPQ was asked upon availability of a relative at enrolment. BPQ’s sensitivity and specificity analyses were used to ascertain outcomes.
A response to the BPQ was available for 171 patients (47% of the main study’s cohort). Of this number, 75.4% were positive (suggesting impairment), and 24.6% were negative. To detect one of the three geriatric syndromes, the BPQ had a sensitivity of 85.4% (95% CI [76.3, 92.0]) and a specificity of 35.4% (95% CI [25.1, 46.7]). Similar results were obtained for each separate outcome. Odds ratio demonstrated a higher risk of presence of geriatric syndromes.
The Bergman-Paris Question could be an ED screening tool for possible geriatric syndrome. A positive BPQ should prompt the need of further investigations and a negative BPQ possibly warrants no further action. More research is needed to validate the usefulness of the BPQ for day-to-day geriatric screening by ED professionals or geriatricians.
This project evaluated the effectiveness of screening brief intervention and referral for treatment (SBIRT) in primary care in Abu Dhabi to manage patients with problematic substance use. This study aimed to determine whether: (i) training primary care physicians on the SBIRT model increased the identification of patients using substances at a harmful, hazardous or dependent level; (ii) training improved physicians’ knowledge, attitudes and beliefs in self-efficacy in managing substance use.
Substance use is increasing in the United Arab Emirates yet there has been no formal primary care intervention. SBIRT was considered an appropriate model given its endorsement by the WHO.
A controlled trial (two intervention and two matched control clinics) was undertaken. Intervention physicians (n=17) were trained in SBIRT. Physicians’ attitudes were measured before and after training and eight months after implementation. Target recruitment was 900 patients. Inclusion criteria were: consenting UAE national, ⩾18 years, using the ‘walk-in’ primary care clinic. Patient data was collected by physician-administered questionnaire. Prevalence of drug use was measured through electronic patient records.
A total of 906 patients were screened, aged 18–82 years and 496 (55%) were female. Of these, 5.7% reported use of amphetamine, 3.9% alcohol, 3.3%, sedatives, 1.7% opioids and 1.1% cannabis. In all, 21 people had a moderate/high ASSIST score and received a brief intervention, but did not attend follow-up; three high-risk people were referred for specialist treatment. Physicians’ attitudes towards patients with problematic substance use and providing treatment improved after training, but returned to pre-training levels after eight months. Including the 21 individuals identified from intervention screening, the prevalence of substance use increased to 0.208% (95% CI 0.154–0.274), significantly higher than in control clinics (P<0.001).
In conclusion, physicians were generally positive towards SBIRT and SBIRT increased recorded drug related conditions at a practice level. However, poor patient attendance at follow-up requires investigation.
The vision for dementia-friendly communities is challenged by limited public awareness and stigma about dementia. The study aim was to elicit stakeholder priorities for the message content of an education program to improve dementia awareness among youth; specifically, what do children need to know about dementia?
A qualitative inquiry using interviews and focus groups was used. Purposive sampling achieved maximum variation in dementia experience and participant characteristics. Focus groups with Scouts in the community aged 9–12 years old (n = 22) used innovative techniques to explore children's attitudes towards people with dementia. Participants with personal experience of dementia were five people with early-stage dementia; 12 adult primary carers; four non-primary carers; and six grandchildren of a person with dementia. They were asked what is important for children to understand about dementia and what attitudes they may like an education program to confer. Content analysis was performed using NVivo10.
Strong themes to emerge were that children need to know the whole truth about dementia; that individuals with dementia are “still people,” that it is “not the fault” of the person with dementia; and that dementia is different and typically unpredictable for everyone. Discussions also indicated a need to educate children about ways to relate to a person with dementia, and to appreciate “positives” within a relationship.
Children are our future citizens. Developing an education program for children with this message content may be fundamental to de-stigmatizing dementia and laying the foundation to dementia-friendly communities.
Recent reforms of family policy signal a turning point in the Korean welfare state, as they undermine the welfare developmentalism that is commonly ascribed to Korean social policy. Drawing on the East Asian as well as Western welfare state literatures, this research seeks to understand the politics behind family policy reforms. In doing so, this research argues that political parties were the driver of these reforms, contrary to the conventional ‘parties do not matter’ perspective that dominates the East Asian welfare state literature. Utilizing the party competition thesis from the study of Western welfare states, this article demonstrates that political parties, the unlikely reform agency due to their perceived non-policy orientation, moved family policy to centre stage in election campaigns. Far-reaching changes in the electorate, namely the diminishing effect of regionalism and the increasing importance of young voters, incentivized parties to promote family policy. Thus, this research calls for bringing political parties into the analysis of East Asian welfare politics.
Coordinated welfare capitalism has been subject to comprehensive change since the 1990s, with workfare measures and the deregulation of employment protection at the heart of labor market reforms. Developments in Sweden, Germany, and South Korea challenge not only the assumption of relative stability that is commonly associated with the study of coordinated market economies, but also the assertion that this stability is associated with the persistence of established political coalitions. The authors contend that a collapse of longstanding welfare state coalitions is the key political driver of labor market reform, with the withdrawal of employers from previous welfare settlements at the center of this development.
To measure transmission frequencies and risk factors for household acquisition of community-associated and healthcare-associated (HA-) methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA).
Prospective cohort study from October 4, 2008, through December 3, 2012.
Seven acute care hospitals in or near Toronto, Canada.
Total of 99 MRSA-colonized or MRSA-infected case patients and 183 household contacts.
Baseline interviews were conducted, and surveillance cultures were collected monthly for 3 months from household members, pets, and 8 prespecified high-use environmental locations. Isolates underwent pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec typing.
Overall, of 183 household contacts 89 (49%) were MRSA colonized, with 56 (31%) detected at baseline. MRSA transmission from index case to contacts negative at baseline occurred in 27 (40%) of 68 followed-up households. Strains were identical within households. The transmission risk for HA-MRSA was 39% compared with 40% (P=.95) for community-associated MRSA. HA-MRSA index cases were more likely to be older and not practice infection control measures (P=.002–.03). Household acquisition risk factors included requiring assistance and sharing bath towels (P=.001–.03). Environmental contamination was identified in 78 (79%) of 99 households and was more common in HA-MRSA households.
Household transmission of community-associated and HA-MRSA strains was common and the difference in transmission risk was not statistically significant.
Patterns of practice for management of cerebral venous thrombosis in Canada are unknown. We surveyed Canadian neurologists and hematologists regarding anticoagulation in cerebral venous thrombosis. The response rate was 28%, with 27 neurologists and 20 hematologists responding. We found that choice of first-line initial anticoagulation differed significantly between neurologists and hematologists, with 89% of neurologists favouring unfractionated heparin and hematologists’ preference split between unfractionated heparin (50%) and low-molecular-weight heparin (50%). Differences in patterns of practice likely reflect clinical equipoise.
This article reports on qualitative research conducted to evaluate parents’ perspectives of their experiences of Talking Matters Bendigo (TMB), a screening programme initiated between health and educational professionals in regional Victoria to improve access to speech pathologists for parents of preschool-aged children with speech, language and communication concerns. Drop-in clinics are conducted in three Bendigo schools monthly. The programme is a collaborative partnership between the Victorian Department of Education and Training, Maternal and Child Health and ‘Off to an Early Start’ (City of Greater Bendigo), Bendigo Health and the disciplines of Speech Pathology and Education at La Trobe University, Bendigo. La Trobe Education (Honours) student researchers interviewed a group of 10 parents attending TMB using face to face interviews and collected data using an online survey after parents attended a session. Thematic analysis of the data was completed and inter-reliability checks were completed by two external La Trobe PhD students to increase reliability and validity. Results indicated parents were satisfied with the information provided by the speech pathologists and they reported that they intended to utilise this new knowledge at home with their children. This study provides preliminary evidence that novel service delivery options such as TMB can be successful in engaging parents early in health literacy so that speech, language and communication problems in preschool-aged children can be identified, managed and even prevented.
The consequences of minor trauma involving a head injury (MT-HI) in independent older adults are largely unknown. This study assessed the impact of a head injury on the functional outcomes six months post-injury in older adults who sustained a minor trauma.
This multicenter prospective cohort study in eight sites included patients who were aged 65 years or older, previously independent, presenting to the emergency department (ED) for a minor trauma, and discharged within 48 hours. To assess the functional decline, we used a validated test: the Older Americans’ Resources and Services Scale. The cognitive function of study patients was also evaluated. Finally, we explored the influence of a concomitant injury on the functional decline in the MT-HI group.
All 926 eligible patients were included in the analyses: 344 MT-HI patients and 582 minor trauma without head injury. After six months, the functional decline was similar in both groups: 10.8% and 11.9%, respectively (RR=0.79 [95% CI: 0.55–1.14]). The proportion of patients with mild cognitive disabilities was also similar: 21.7% and 22.8%, respectively (RR=0.91 [95% CI: 0.71–1.18]). Furthermore, for the group of patients with a MT-HI, the functional outcome was not statistically different with or without the presence of a co-injury (RR=1.35 [95% CI: 0.71–2.59]).
This study did not demonstrate that the occurrence of a MT-HI is associated with a worse functional or cognitive prognosis than other minor injuries without a head injury in an elderly population, six months after injury.
Although prevailing theories of antisocial behavior (ASB) emphasize distinct developmental trajectories, few studies have explored gene–environment interplay underlying membership in empirically derived trajectories. To improve knowledge about the development of overt (e.g., aggression) and covert (e.g., delinquency) ASB, we tested the association of the 44-base pair promoter polymorphism in the serotonin transporter linked polymorphic region gene (5-HTTLPR), perceived parental support (e.g., closeness and warmth), and their interaction with ASB trajectories derived using latent class growth analysis in 2,558 adolescents followed prospectively into adulthood from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health. Three distinct trajectories emerged for overt (low desisting, adolescent peak, and late onset) and covert ASB (high stable, low stable, and nonoffending). Controlling for sex, parental support inversely predicted membership in the adolescent-peak overt ASB trajectory (vs. low desisting), but was unrelated to class membership for covert ASB. Furthermore, the 5-HTTLPR genotype significantly moderated the association of parental support on overt ASB trajectory membership. It is interesting that the pattern of Gene × Environment interaction differed by trajectory class: whereas short allele carriers were more sensitive to parental support in predicting the late-onset trajectory, the long/long genotype functioned as a potential “plasticity genotype” for the adolescent-peak trajectory group. We discuss these preliminary findings in the context of the differential susceptibility hypothesis and discuss the need for future studies to integrate gene–environment interplay and prospective longitudinal designs.
Background: Acquired brain injury is a critical public health and socioeconomic problem in Canada, leaving many patients in vegetative, minimally conscious, or locked-in states, unresponsive and unable to communicate. Recent advances in neuroimaging research have demonstrated residual consciousness in a few exemplary patients with acquired brain injury, suggesting potential misdiagnosis and changes in prognosis. Such progress, in parallel with research using multimodal brain imaging technologies in recent years, has promising implications for clinical translation, notwithstanding the many challenges that impact health care and policy development. This study explored the perspectives of Canadian professionals with expertise either in neuroimaging research, disorders of consciousness, or both, on the potential clinical applications and implications of imaging technology. Methods: Twenty-two professionals from designated communities of neuroimaging researchers, ethicists, lawyers, and practitioners participated in semistructured interviews. Data were analyzed for emergent themes. Results: The five most dominant themes were: (1) validation and calibration of the methods; (2) informed consent; (3) burdens on the health care system; (4) implications for the Canadian health care system; and (5) possibilities for improved prognosis. Conclusions: Movement of neuroimaging from research into clinical care for acquired brain injury will require careful consideration of legal and ethical issues alongside research reliability, responsible distribution of health care resources, and the interaction of technological capabilities with patient outcome.
To investigate the effect of public hospitals in Hong Kong not accepting free infant formula from manufacturers on in-hospital formula supplementation rates and breast-feeding duration.
Prospective cohort study.
In-patient postnatal units of four public hospitals in Hong Kong.
Two cohorts of breast-feeding mother–infant pairs (n 2560). Cohort 1 (n 1320) was recruited before implementation of the policy to stop accepting free infant formula and cohort 2 (n 1240) was recruited after policy implementation. Participants were followed prospectively for 12 months or until they stopped breast-feeding.
The mean number of formula supplements given to infants in the first 24 h was 2·70 (sd 3·11) in cohort 1 and 1·17 (sd 1·94) in cohort 2 (P<0·001). The proportion of infants who were exclusively breast-fed during the hospital stay increased from 17·7 % in cohort 1 to 41·3 % in cohort 2 (P<0·001) and the risk of breast-feeding cessation was significantly lower in cohort 2 (hazard ratio=0·81; 95 % CI 0·73, 0·90). Participants who non-exclusively breast-fed during the hospital stay had a significantly higher risk of stopping any or exclusive breast-feeding. Higher levels of formula supplementation also increased the risk of breast-feeding cessation in a dose–response pattern.
After implementation of a hospital policy to pay market price for infant formula, rates of in-hospital formula supplementation were reduced and the rates of in-hospital exclusive breast-feeding and breast-feeding duration increased.