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In the modern era of carefully monitored renovations, construction-related Aspergillus outbreaks have decreased. We investigated an increase in clinical cultures growing Aspergillus species, determining that contamination of the mycology lab caused a pseudo-outbreak. A major construction site was appropriately sealed, but unrecognized staff traffic may have facilitated laboratory contamination.
Serum and erythrocyte (RBC) total folate are indicators of folate status. No nationally representative population data exist for folate forms. We measured the serum folate forms (5-methyltetrahydrofolate (5-methylTHF), unmetabolised folic acid (UMFA), non-methyl folate (sum of tetrahydrofolate (THF), 5-formyltetrahydrofolate (5-formylTHF), 5,10-methenyltetrahydrofolate (5,10-methenylTHF)) and MeFox (5-methylTHF oxidation product)) by HPLC–MS/MS and RBC total folate by microbiologic assay in US population ≥ 1 year (n approximately 7500) participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2011–2. Data analysis for serum total folate was conducted including and excluding MeFox. Concentrations (geometric mean; detection rate) of 5-methylTHF (37·5 nmol/l; 100 %), UMFA (1·21 nmol/l; 99·9 %), MeFox (1·53 nmol/l; 98·8 %), and THF (1·01 nmol/l; 85·2 %) were mostly detectable. 5-FormylTHF (3·6 %) and 5,10-methenylTHF (4·4 %) were rarely detected. The biggest contributor to serum total folate was 5-methylTHF (86·7 %); UMFA (4·0 %), non-methyl folate (4·7 %) and MeFox (4·5 %) contributed smaller amounts. Age was positively related to MeFox, but showed a U-shaped pattern for other folates. We generally noted sex and race/ethnic biomarker differences and weak (Spearman's r< 0·4) but significant (P< 0·05) correlations with physiological and lifestyle variables. Fasting, kidney function, smoking and alcohol intake showed negative associations. BMI and body surface area showed positive associations with MeFox but negative associations with other folates. All biomarkers showed significantly higher concentrations with recent folic acid-containing dietary supplement use. These first-time population data for serum folate forms generally show similar associations with demographic, physiological and lifestyle variables as serum total folate. Patterns observed for MeFox may suggest altered folate metabolism dependent on biological characteristics.
In order to better understand the role of working memory in second language (L2) written production, this study contributes to recent research attempting to apply Kellogg's model of working memory in first language (L1) writing to L2 writing research (Ellis & Yuan 2004; Ong & Zhang 2010; Johnson, Mercado & Acevedo 2012). This paper describes an approximate replication of a study presented by Johnson et al. (2012) in order to determine whether the effects of pre-task planning sub-processes (idea generation, organization, and goal setting) are mediated by a hypothesized threshold of proficiency in the target language. To do this, the current study replicated a quasi-experimental research design to test the effect of specific pre-task planning sub-processes on the written language production of a group of L1 speakers of English. Using measures identical to those in Johnson et al. (2012), the study found no significant, multivariate effect of pre-task planning on the fluency and complexity of the participants' written language production, suggesting no support for the hypothesized threshold of general proficiency in the target language. The implications of the study's results are discussed in terms of Kellogg's model (1996) of working memory in L1 writing and its ability to describe L2 composing processes.
Seedling vigor is important to help ensure good crop establishment. In direct-seeded rice, this is particularly relevant when soil conditions are marginal. In Asia, about one third of the area of rainfed rice is situated on unfavorable soils, many of which are low in plant available P. In such environments, as farmers tend to have few resources, options to overcome poor crop establishment should be low cost and preferably seed-based. The P content of seed depends on genotype and can be augmented by soaking seeds in a P-containing solution prior to seeding (P-priming). In addition, the presence of the Pup1 quantitative trait locus can reportedly confer tolerance to low soil P availability. We tested combinations of seed priming (unprimed control, water priming, P-priming), and inherent seed P concentrations in contrasting rice genotypes (DJ123, Sadri Tor Misri), and two near isogenic sister lines of IR74 with (+Pup1) and without (−Pup1) the Pup1 QTL. Treatment effects on germination were studied in Petri dishes, while seedling growth and P accumulation were assessed using pots with P deficient soil. Germination was less than 75% in seeds with low seed P content. Seed priming with both water and P enhanced germination and seedling growth. In plants growing from high P seeds, water priming outperformed P-priming. In Sadri Tor Misri with low seed P, we observed a tendency for better performance in some parameters when P-primed. While the presence of the Pup1 QTL in IR74 increased shoot biomass and total root length, these effects could be further enhanced by water priming. Combining genetic and seed management approaches may contribute to improved rice establishment in P deficient soils but its effectiveness depends on genotype and seed attributes.
This chapter portrays the implementation of a fully integrated mixed methods research design aimed to capture the ongoing process of social change in mainland China. We approach the study of social change by combining the investigation of existing social structures in China with an exploration of Chinese peoples’ perceptions about the function and role of social relationships in the process of adapting to new social practices. Our specific focus for the study of social change is the recent establishment of the rule of law in China, which is perhaps one of the most sweeping social reforms in the history of the country. To capture the mutual impact of structure and cognition on the agency of a rural Chinese citizen, we used a research design that integrates not only our multitude of questions and influencing concepts, but also different types of data and a range of data collection and analysis techniques. As discussed in the introduction of this volume, we identify this fully integrated mixed methods research design in reference to a typology developed by Teddlie and Tashakkori (2006:15).
A focus on the implications of legal reforms for social change in rural China allows us to thoroughly explore network effects in local communities. The Chinese legal system was one of the social institutions that received a major overhaul by the Chinese government as part of its economic reform package initiated in the late 1970s. In 1992, the National People’s Congress formally recognized that a sound market economy must be based on the rule of law and expected civil courts to provide legal services to all citizens alongside criminal courts (Potter 2001; Wang 2000). This decision has provided Chinese people with the option of settling civil disputes through formal adjudication by a judge at court in addition to the traditional practice of mediation based on the principles of reciprocity assisted by a local authority.
To determine prevalence, predictors, and outcomes of infection due to Escherichia coli sequence type ST131.
All healthcare settings in Olmsted County, Minnesota (eg, community hospital, tertiary care center, long-term care facilities, and ambulatory clinics).
Ambulatory and hospitalized children and adults with extraintestinal E. coli isolates.
We analyzed 299 consecutive, nonduplicate extraintestinal E. coli isolates submitted to Olmsted County laboratories in February and March 2011. ST131 was identified using single-nucleotide polymorphism polymerase chain reaction and further evaluated through pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Associated clinical data were abstracted through medical record review.
Most isolates were from urine specimens (90%), outpatients (68%), and community-associated infections (61%). ST131 accounted for 27% of isolates overall and for a larger proportion of those isolates resistant to fluoroquinolones (81%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (42%), gentamicin (79%), and ceftriaxone (50%). The prevalence of ST131 increased with age (accounting for 5% of isolates from those 11–20 years of age, 26% of isolates from those 51–60 years of age, and 50% of isolates from those 91–100 years of age). ST131 accounted for a greater proportion of healthcare-associated isolates (49%) than community-associated isolates (15%) and for fully 76% of E. coli isolates from long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Multivariable predictors of ST131 carriage included older age, LTCF residence, previous urinary tract infection, high-complexity infection, and previous use of fluoroquinolones, macrolides, and extended-spectrum cephalosporins. With multivariable adjustment, ST131-associated infection outcomes included receipt of more than 1 antibiotic (odds ratio [OR], 2.54 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–5.17]) and persistent or recurrent symptoms (OR, 2.53 [95% CI, 1.08–5.96]). Two globally predominant ST131 pulsotypes accounted for 45% of STB 1 isolates.
ST131isa dominant, antimicrobial-resistant clonal group associated with healthcare settings, elderly hosts, and persistent or recurrent symptoms.
Late or non-referral of patients to specialist palliative care (SPC) services may affect patients' and their carers' quality of care. General practitioners (GPs) are key professionals in linking people with SPC. The aim of this article is to assess GPs' perceptions and SPC referrals for their patients with advanced cancer and differences between metropolitan (M GPs) and non-metropolitan GPs (NM GPs).
Self-report survey mailed to a stratified random sample of 1,680 Australian GPs was used.
Thirty-one percent (469) of eligible GPs returned surveys. More M GPs than NM GPs reported referring >60% of their patients for SPC (p = 0.014); and that a more comprehensive range of SPC services was available. The most frequently reported referral prompts were: presence of terminal illness (M GPs, 71%, NM GPs, 66%, ns (not significant)); future need for symptom control (69% vs. 59%, ns) and uncontrolled physical symptoms (63% vs. 54%, ns). Reasons for not referring were: doctor's ability to manage symptoms (62% vs. 68%, ns) and the absence of symptoms (29% vs. 18%, p = 0.025). Higher referral was associated with: having a palliative care physician or consultative service available; agreeing that all patients with advanced cancer should be referred, and agreeing that with SPC, the needs of the family are better met.
Significance of results:
Referrals for SPC were primarily disease-related rather than for psychological and emotional concerns. Measures are needed to encourage referrals based upon psychosocial needs as well as for physical concerns, and to support GPs caring for people with advanced cancer in areas with fewer comprehensive SPC services.
The influence of adding InF3 as a reducing agent on the oxidation state of Eu in fluoro-chloro- (FCZ) and fluorobromozirconate (FBZ) glass ceramics was investigated using x-ray ab-sorption near edge (XANES) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. For both materials, it was found that InF3 decreases the Eu2+-to-Eu3+ ratio significantly. PL spectroscopy proved that an annealing step leads to the formation of Eu-doped BaCl2 and BaBr2 nanocrystals in the FCZ and FBZ glasses, respectively. In the case of FCZ glass ceramics the hexagonal phase of BaCl2 could be detected in indium-free and InF3-doped ceramics, but only for InF3 containing FCZ glass ceramics a phase transition of the nanoparticles from hexagonal to orthorhombic structure is observed. For the FBZ glass ceramics, the hexagonal phase of BaBr2 can be formed with and without indium doping, but only in the indium-free case a phase transition to orthorhombic BaBr2 could be found.
The overall biotic pressure on a newly introduced species may be less than that experienced within its native range, facilitating invasion. The brown alga Sargassum muticum (Yendo) Fensholt is a conspicuous and successful invasive species originally from Japan and China. We compared S. muticum and native macroalgae with respect to the biotic pressures of mesoherbivore grazing and ectocarpoid fouling. In Strangford Lough, Northern Ireland, S. muticum thalli were as heavily overgrown with seasonal blooms of epiphytic algae as native macroalgal species were. The herbivorous amphipod Dexamine spinosa was much more abundant on S. muticum than on any native macroalga. When cultured with this amphipod, S. muticum lost more tissue than three native macroalgae, Saccharina latissima (Linnaeus) Lane et al., Halidrys siliquosa (Linnaeus) Lyngbye and Fucus serratus Linnaeus. Sargassum muticum cultured with both ectocarpoid fouling and amphipods showed a severe impact, consistent with our previous findings of large declines in the density of S. muticum observed in the field during the peak of fouling. Despite being a recent introduction into the macroalgal community in Strangford Lough, S. muticum appears to be under biotic pressure at least equal to that on native species, suggesting that release from grazing and epiphytism does not contribute to the invasiveness of this species in Strangford Lough.
It has traditionally been considered that areas with high natural species richness are likely to be more resistant to non-indigenous species than those with lower numbers of species. However, this theory has been the subject of a debate over the last decade, since some studies have shown the opposite trend. In the present study, a macroalgal survey was carried out at 24 localities in Northern Ireland and southern England, using a quadrat approach in the lower littoral. The two opposing hypotheses were tested (negative versus positive relationship between native and non-indigenous species richness) in this marine environment. The effect of the presence of ‘impacts’, potential sources of disturbance and species introduction (e.g. marina, harbour or aquaculture), was also tested. A positive relationship was found between the number of non-indigenous species and the native species richness at the three different scales tested (quadrats, sites and localities). At no scale did a richer native assemblage appear to restrict the establishment of introduced species. The analyses revealed greater species richness and different community composition, as well as more non-indigenous species, in southern England relative to Northern Ireland. The presence of the considered impacts had an effect on the community composition and species richness in southern England but not in Northern Ireland. Such impacts had no effect on the non-indigenous species richness in either area.