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OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: Approximately 80% of adolescents do not meet the current national guidelines of engaging in 60 minutes or more of physical activity daily. Physical activity is widely recognized as being beneficial for healthy growth as well as important for good mental health and fitness. Interventions are needed that promote and encourage physical activity among this population to reduce the risk of obesity and to encourage maintenance of a healthy weight. Since adolescents enjoy digital technologies, robotic-assisted platforms might be a novel, innovative and engaging mechanism to deliver physical activity interventions. The objective of this study was to assess the potential acceptability of robotic-assisted exercise coaching among diverse youth. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: This was a pilot study that used a cross-sectional survey design. Adolescents ages 12-17 were recruited at 3 community-based sites. We obtained written informed consent from participants’ parents and guardians as well as assent from participants. We demonstrated the robotic system human interface (also known as the robotic human trainer) to groups of adolescents. We delivered the exercise coaching in real time via an iPad tablet placed atop a mobile robotic wheel base and controlled remotely by the coach using an iOS device or computer. After the demonstration participants were asked to complete a 28- item survey that included questions about socio demographics, smoking history, weight, exercise habits, and depression history. The survey also included the 8- item Technology Acceptance Scale (TAS). RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Participants (N = 190) were 55% (103/189) male, 43% (81/190) racial minority, 6% (11/190) Hispanic, and 28% (54/190) lived in a lower-income community. The mean age of participants was 15.0 years (SD=2.0). Approximately 25% (47/190) of participants met national recommendations for physical activity. Their mean body mass index (BMI) was 21.8(SD_4.0) kg/m2. Of note, 18% (35/190) had experienced depression now or in the past. The mean Technology Acceptance Scale (TAS) total score was 32.8 (SD 7.8) of a possible score of 40, indicating high potential receptivity to the technology. No significant associations were detected between TAS score and gender, age, racial minority status, median income of participant’s neighborhood, BMI, meeting national recommendations for physical activity levels, or depression history. Of interest, 68% (129/190) of participants agreed that they and their friends were likely to use the robot to help them exercise. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: This pilot survey study demonstrated that among a racially and socioeconomically diverse group of adolescents, robotic-assisted exercise coaching is likely acceptable. The discovery that all demographic groups represented in this sample had similarly high receptivity to the robotic human exercise trainer is encouraging for ultimate considerations of intervention scalability and reach among diverse adolescent populations. Next steps include a study to assess the impact of robotic-assisted exercise coaching on adolescents’ exercise and health outcomes.
Li[Lix/3Mn2x/3M1−x]O2 (M = Ni, Mn, Co) (HE-NMC) materials, which can be expressed as a combination of trigonal LiTMO2 (TM = transition metal) and monoclinic Li2MnO3 phases, are of great interest as high capacity cathodes for lithium-ion batteries. However, structural stability prevents their commercial adoption. To address this, Si doping was applied, resulting in improved stability. Raman and differential capacity analyses suggest that silicon doping improves the structural stability during electrochemical cycling. Furthermore, the doped material exhibits a 10% higher capacity relative to the control. The superior capacity likely results from the increased lattice parameters as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the lower resistance during the first cycle found by impedance and direct current resistance (DCR) measurements. Density functional theory (DFT) predictions suggest that the observed lattice expansion is an indication of increased oxygen vacancy concentration and may be due to the Si doping.
The impact of a deep-water plunging breaker on a finite height two-dimensional structure with a vertical front face is studied experimentally. The structure is located at a fixed horizontal position relative to a wave maker and the structure’s bottom surface is located at a range of vertical positions close to the undisturbed water surface. Measurements of the water surface profile history and the pressure distribution on the front surface of the structure are performed. As the vertical position,
axis is positive up and
is the mean water level), of the structure’s bottom surface is varied from one experimental run to another, the water surface evolution during impact can be categorized into three classes of behaviour. In class I, with
in a range of values near
is the nominal wavelength of the breaker, the behaviour of the water surface is similar to the flip-through phenomena first described in studies with shallow water and a structure mounted on the sea bed. In the present work, it is found that the water surface between the front face of the structure and the wave crest is well fitted by arcs of circles with a decreasing radius and downward moving centre as the impact proceeds. A spatially and temporally localized high-pressure region was found on the impact surface of the structure and existing theory is used to explore the physics of this phenomenon. In class II, with
in a range of values near the mean water level, the bottom of the structure exits and re-enters the water phase at least once during the impact process. These air–water transitions generate large-amplitude ripple packets that propagate to the wave crest and modify its behaviour significantly. At
, all sensors submerged during the impact record a nearly in-phase high-frequency pressure oscillation indicating possible air entrainment. In class III, with
in a range of values near
, the bottom of the structure remains in air before the main crest hits the bottom corner of the structure. The subsequent free surface behaviour is strongly influenced by the instantaneous momentum of the local flow just before impact and the highest wall pressures of all experimental conditions are found.
Despite global deterioration of coral reef health, not all reef-associated organisms are in decline. Bioeroding sponges are thought to be largely resistant to the factors that stress and kill corals, and are increasing in abundance on many reefs. However, there is a paucity of information on how environmental factors influence spatial variation in the distribution of these sponges, and how they might be affected by different stressors. We aimed to identify the factors that explained differences in bioeroding sponge abundance and assemblage composition, and to determine whether bioeroding sponges benefit from the same environmental conditions that can contribute towards coral mortality. Abundance surveys were conducted in the Wakatobi region of Indonesia on reefs characterized by different biotic and abiotic conditions. Bioeroding sponges occupied an average of 8.9% of available dead substrate and variation in abundance and assemblage composition was primarily attributed to differences in the availability of dead substrate. Our results imply that if dead substrate availability increases as a consequence of coral mortality, bioeroding sponge abundance is also likely to increase. However, bioeroding sponge abundance was lowest on a sedimented reef, despite abundant dead substrate. This suggests that not all forms of coral mortality will benefit all bioeroding sponge species, and sediment-degraded reefs are likely to be dominated by a few resilient bioeroding sponge species. Overall, we demonstrate the importance of understanding the drivers of bioeroding sponge abundance and assemblage composition in order to predict possible impacts of different stressors on reefs communities.
Extinction is the complete loss of a species, but the accuracy of that status depends on the overall information about the species. Dracaena umbraculifera was described in 1797 from a cultivated plant attributed to Mauritius, but repeated surveys failed to relocate it and it was categorized as Extinct on the IUCN Red List. However, several individuals labelled as D. umbraculifera grow in botanical gardens, suggesting that the species’ IUCN status may be inaccurate. The goal of this study was to understand (1) where D. umbraculifera originated, (2) which species are its close relatives, (3) whether it is extinct, and (4) the identity of the botanical garden accessions and whether they have conservation value. We sequenced a cpDNA region of Dracaena from Mauritius, botanical garden accessions labelled as D. umbraculifera, and individuals confirmed to be D. umbraculifera based on morphology, one of which is a living plant in a private garden. We included GenBank accessions of Dracaena from Madagascar and other locations and reconstructed the phylogeny using Bayesian and parsimony approaches. Phylogenies indicated that D. umbraculifera is more closely related to Dracaena reflexa from Madagascar than to Mauritian Dracaena. As anecdotal information indicated that the living D. umbraculifera originated from Madagascar, we conducted field expeditions there and located five wild populations; the species’ IUCN status should therefore be Critically Endangered because < 50 wild individuals remain. Although the identity of many botanical garden samples remains unresolved, this study highlights the importance of living collections for facilitating new discoveries and the importance of documenting and conserving the flora of Madagascar.
Labour Beyond Cosatu is the fourth volume in the series Taking Democracy Seriously – a ground-breaking, textured and nuanced study on workers and democracy – which was established in the 1990s. The series looks at members of trade unions affiliated to the Congress of South African Trade Unions (Cosatu) and provides a rich database of trade union members and research conducted over the past twenty years. It is one of the very few such resources available to researchers anywhere in the world. Labour Beyond Cosatu paints a complex picture. The 12 chapters of the volume explore various rebellions and conflicts in the trade union sector, starting with the National Union of Mineworkers (NUM) and rivalries between Cosatu affiliates. Unpacking the conflicts between state-sector and private-sector workers, contributors look at the impact of generational and educational shifts, seen by some commentators as proof that Cosatu is now ‘middle class’. The book also raises the issue of gender in the unions by usefully locating the controversy around charges levelled at Zwelinzima Vavi in 2013 in the larger context of serious problems in the gender politics within parts of Cosatu.Refuting the image of a union federation solidly committed to the ANC, Labour Beyond Cosatu presents evidence of a sharp decline in support for the ANC within Cosatu, and growing scepticism towards the Alliance. It shows that attempts to understand the labour movement in South Africa in the future will need to include research of smaller, independent unions and social movements. The volume’s contributors make a major contribution to key debates on labour and democracy, providing new material that can potentially shift the discussion in important ways. This book will be of great value to students and researchers in Industrial Sociology, Political Studies, Industrial Psychology and Economics and Management.
Objectives: Internationally, funders require stakeholder involvement throughout health technology assessment (HTA). We report successes, challenges, and lessons learned from extensive stakeholder involvement throughout a palliative care case study that demonstrates new concepts and methods for HTA.
Methods: A 5-step “INTEGRATE-HTA Model” developed within the INTEGRATE-HTA project guided the case study. Using convenience or purposive sampling or directly / indirectly identifying and approaching individuals / groups, stakeholders participated in qualitative research or consultation meetings. During scoping, 132 stakeholders, aged ≥ 18 years in seven countries (England, Italy, Germany, The Netherlands, Norway, Lithuania, and Poland), highlighted key issues in palliative care that assisted identification of the intervention and comparator. Subsequently stakeholders in four countries participated in face–face, telephone and / or video Skype meetings to inform evidence collection and / or review assessment results. An applicability assessment to identify contextual and implementation barriers and enablers for the case study findings involved twelve professionals in the three countries. Finally, thirteen stakeholders participated in a mock decision-making meeting in England.
Results: Views about the best methods of stakeholder involvement vary internationally. Stakeholders make valuable contributions in all stages of HTA; assisting decision making about interventions, comparators, research questions; providing evidence and insights into findings, gap analyses and applicability assessments. Key challenges exist regarding inclusivity, time, and resource use.
Conclusion: Stakeholder involvement is feasible and worthwhile throughout HTA, sometimes providing unique insights. Various methods can be used to include stakeholders, although challenges exist. Recognition of stakeholder expertise and further guidance about stakeholder consultation methods is needed.
Sexual dimorphism is common in many extant animals, but it is difficult to demonstrate in fossil species. Working with material from the Late Cretaceous of the U.S. Coastal Plain, we herein analyze sexual dimorphism in ostracodes from the superfamily Cytheroidea, a group whose extant members have males that are relatively more elongate than females. We digitized outlines of more than 6000 individual ostracode valves or carapaces, extracted size (area) and shape (length-to-height ratio) information, and used finite mixture models to assess hypotheses of sexual dimorphism. Male and female clusters can be discerned in nearly all populations with sufficient data, resulting in estimates of size and shape dimorphism for 142 populations across 106 species; an additional nine samples are interpreted to consist only of females. Dimorphism patterns varied across taxa, especially for body size: males range from 30% larger to 20% smaller than females. Magnitudes of sexual dimorphism are generally stable within species across time and space; we can demonstrate substantial evolutionary changes in dimorphism in only one species, Haplocytheridea renfroensis. Several lines of evidence indicate that patterns of sexual dimorphism in these ostracodes reflect male investment in reproduction, suggesting that this study system has the potential to capture variation in sexual selection through the fossil record.
Although infants less than 18 months old are capable of engaging in self-regulatory behavior (e.g., avoidance, withdrawal, and orienting to other aspects of their environment), the use of self-regulatory strategies at this age (as opposed to relying on caregivers) is associated with elevated behavioral and physiological distress. This study investigated infant dopamine-related genotypes (dopamine receptor D2 [DRD2], dopamine transporter solute carrier family C6, member 4 [SLC6A3], and catechol-O-methyltransferase [COMT]) as they interact with maternal self-reported history of maltreatment to predict observed infant independent emotion regulation behavior. A community sample (N = 193) of mother–infant dyads participated in a toy frustration challenge at infant age 15 months, and infant emotion regulation behavior was coded. Buccal cells were collected for genotyping. Maternal maltreatment history significantly interacted with infant SLC6A3 and COMT genotypes, such that infants with more 10-repeat and valine alleles of SLC6A3 and COMT, respectively, relative to infants with fewer or no 10-repeat and valine alleles, utilized more independent (i.e., maladaptive) regulatory behavior if mother reported a more extensive maltreatment history, as opposed to less. The findings indicate that child genetic factors moderate the intergenerational impact of maternal maltreatment history. The results are discussed in terms of potential mechanism of Gene × Environment interaction.
Objectives: Dysbiosis of the gut microbiome is implicated in numerous human health conditions. Animal studies have linked microbiome disruption to changes in cognitive functioning, although no study has examined this possibility in neurologically healthy older adults. Methods: Participants were 43 community-dwelling older adults (50–85 years) that completed a brief cognitive test battery and provided stool samples for gut microbiome sequencing. Participants performing≥1 SD below normative performance on two or more tests were compared to persons with one or fewer impaired scores. Results: Mann Whitney U tests revealed different distributions of Bacteroidetes (p=.01), Firmicutes (p=.02), Proteobacteria (p=.04), and Verrucomicrobia (p=.003) between Intact and Impaired groups. These phyla were significantly correlated with cognitive test performances, particularly Verrucomicrobia and attention/executive function measures. Conclusions: The current findings suggest that composition of the gut microbiome is associated with cognitive test performance in neurologically healthy older adults. Future studies are needed to confirm these findings and explore possible mechanisms. (JINS, 2017, 23, 700–705)
A better understanding of the factors that influence eating behaviour is of importance as our food choices are associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases such as obesity, CVD, type 2 diabetes or some forms of cancer. In addition, accumulating evidence suggests that the industrial food production system is a major contributor to greenhouse gas emission and may be unsustainable. Therefore, our food choices may also contribute to climate change. By identifying the factors that influence eating behaviour new interventions may be developed, at the individual or population level, to modify eating behaviour and contribute to society’s health and environmental goals. Research indicates that eating behaviour is dictated by a complex interaction between physiology, environment, psychology, culture, socio-economics and genetics that is not fully understood. While a growing body of research has identified how several single factors influence eating behaviour, a better understanding of how these factors interact is required to facilitate the developing new models of eating behaviour. Due to the diversity of influences on eating behaviour this would probably necessitate a greater focus on multi-disciplinary research. In the present review, the influence of several salient physiological and environmental factors (largely related to food characteristics) on meal initiation, satiation (meal size) and satiety (inter-meal interval) are briefly discussed. Due to the large literature this review is not exhaustive but illustrates the complexity of eating behaviour. The present review will also highlight several limitations that apply to eating behaviour research.
Efforts to address health disparities and achieve health equity are critically dependent on the development of a diverse research workforce. However, many researchers from underrepresented backgrounds face challenges in advancing their careers, securing independent funding, and finding the mentorship needed to expand their research.
Faculty from the University of Maryland at College Park and the University of Wisconsin-Madison developed and evaluated an intensive week-long research and career-development institute—the Health Equity Leadership Institute (HELI)—with the goal of increasing the number of underrepresented scholars who can sustain their ongoing commitment to health equity research.
In 2010-2016, HELI brought 145 diverse scholars (78% from an underrepresented background; 81% female) together to engage with each other and learn from supportive faculty. Overall, scholar feedback was highly positive on all survey items, with average agreement ratings of 4.45-4.84 based on a 5-point Likert scale. Eighty-five percent of scholars remain in academic positions. In the first three cohorts, 73% of HELI participants have been promoted and 23% have secured independent federal funding.
HELI includes an evidence-based curriculum to develop a diverse workforce for health equity research. For those institutions interested in implementing such an institute to develop and support underrepresented early stage investigators, a resource toolbox is provided.
Thirteen double-mode RR Lyrae (RRd) stars, with mean magnitudes c = 18.30 ± 0.10 and <V>c = 17.80 ± 0.15, have been identified in the variable-rich Oosterhoff type I globular cluster IC 4499. The stars have surprisingly uniform properties, and are considerably different from RRd stars found in Oo II systems. The mean first-overtone period (Fig.1) is <P1>=0.357d ± 0.005d (cf. <P1>=0.40d for Oo II RRd stars), and the mean ratio of the first-overtone period to the fundamental period is <P1/P0>= 0.7443 ± 0.0002. The mean double-mode pulsation mass for the 13 stars, using the King Ia (Y=0.279, Z=0.001) mass calibration, is 0.535 ± 0.003 M⊙. Such an average mass is 0.11 M⊙ smaller (i.e. ~17% smaller) than that for RRd stars found in Oo II systems, and possibly ~0.01 M⊙smaller than the mean mass for the two RRd stars in M3 (it is important to note that the zero point of these mass determinations is uncertain by at least 15%). The metal abundances for the RRd stars, and for the system of RR Lyrae stars as a whole, are found to be consistent with <[Fe/H]>=-1.38 ± 0.20, determined from δS spectroscopy. In the Peterson diagram (Fig.2), all known RRd stars now divide (apparently by mass) into two groups (split according to Oosterhoff type). With a reddening of EB-V=0.26 ± 0.03, the cluster distance modulus is (m-M)o=16.23m ± 0.23m.