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Identify changes in the prevalence and antimicrobial resistance patterns of potentially pathogenic bacteria in urine cultures during a 2-year antimicrobial stewardship intervention program in nursing homes (NHs).
Before-and-after intervention study.
The study included 27 NHs in North Carolina.
We audited all urine cultures ordered before and during an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. Analyses compared culture rates, culture positive rates, and pathogen antimicrobial resistance patterns.
Of 6,718 total urine cultures collected, 68% were positive for potentially pathogenic bacteria. During the intervention, significant reductions in the urine culture and positive culture rates were observed (P = .014). Most of the identified potentially uropathogenic isolates were Escherichia coli (38%), Proteus spp (13%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (12%). A significant decrease was observed during the intervention period in nitrofurantoin resistance among E. coli (P ≤ .001) and ciprofloxacin resistance among Proteus spp (P ≤ .001); however carbapenem resistance increased for Proteus spp (P ≤ .001). Multidrug resistance also increased for Proteus spp compared to the baseline. The high baseline resistance of E. coli to the commonly prescribed antimicrobials ciprofloxacin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) did not change during the intervention.
The antimicrobial stewardship intervention program significantly reduced urine culture and culture-positive rates. Overall, very high proportions of antimicrobial resistance were observed among common pathogens; however, antimicrobial resistance trended downward but reductions were too small and scattered to conclude that the intervention significantly changed antimicrobial resistance. Longer intervention periods may be needed to effect change in resistance patterns.
To describe current practice around urine testing and identify factors leading to overtreatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria in community nursing homes (NHs)
Observational study of a stratified random sample of NH patients who had urine cultures ordered in NHs within a 1-month study period
31 NHs in North Carolina
254 NH residents who had a urine culture ordered within the 1-month study period
We conducted an NH record audit of clinical and laboratory information during the 2 days before and 7 days after a urine culture was ordered. We compared these results with the urine antibiogram from the 31 NHs.
Empirical treatment was started in 30% of cases. When cultures were reported, previously untreated cases received antibiotics 89% of the time for colony counts of ≥100,000 CFU/mL and in 35% of cases with colony counts of 10,000–99,000 CFU/mL. Due to the high rate of prescribing when culture results returned, 74% of these patients ultimately received a full course of antibiotics. Treated and untreated patients did not significantly differ in temperature, frequency of urinary signs and symptoms, or presence of Loeb criteria for antibiotic initiation. Factors most commonly associated with urine culture ordering were acute mental status changes (32%); change in the urine color, odor, or sediment (17%); and dysuria (15%).
Urine cultures play a significant role in antibiotic overprescribing. Antibiotic stewardship efforts in NHs should include reduction in culture ordering for factors not associated with infection-related morbidity as well as more scrutiny of patient condition when results become available.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:524–531
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