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We present results from deep Chandra X-ray observations of the galaxy group NGC 5813. This system shows three pairs of collinear cavities, with each pair associated with an elliptical AGN outburst shock. Due to the relatively regular morphology of this system, and the unique unambiguous detection of three distinct AGN outburst shocks, it is particularly well-suited for the study of AGN feedback and the AGN outburst history. We find that the mean kinetic power is roughly the same for each outburst, and that the total energy associated with the youngest outburst is significantly lower than that of the previous outbursts. This implies that the mean AGN jet power has remained stable for at least 50 Myr, and that the youngest outburst is ongoing. We find that the mean shock heating rate balances the local radiative cooling rate at each shock front, suggesting that AGN outburst shock heating alone is sufficient to offset cooling and establish AGN/ICM feedback within at least the central 30 kpc. Finally, we find non-zero shock front widths that are too large to be explained by particle diffusion, but are instead consistent with arising from broadening of the shock fronts due to propagation through a turbulent ICM with a mean turbulent speed of ~ 70 km s−1.
Environmental influences on the rate of Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression have received little attention. Our objective was to test hypotheses concerning associations between caregiver personality traits and the rate of AD progression.
Care receivers (CR) were 161 persons with AD from a population-based dementia progression study; 55 of their caregivers were spouses and 106 were adult children. Cognitive status of the CR was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination every six months, over an average of 5.6 (range: 1–14) years. Linear mixed models tested rate of cognitive decline as a function of caregiver personality traits from the NEO Five-Factor Inventory.
Significantly faster cognitive decline was observed with higher caregiver Neuroticism overall; however, in stratified models, effects were significant for adult child but not spouse caregivers. Neuroticism facets of depression, anxiety, and vulnerability to stress were significantly associated with faster decline. Higher caregiver Extraversion was associated with slower decline in the CR when caregivers were adult children but not spouses.
For adult child caregivers, caregiver personality traits are associated with rate of cognitive decline in CRs with AD regardless of co-residency. Results suggest that dementia caregiver interventions promoting positive care management strategies and ways to react to caregiving challenges may eventually become an important complement to pharmacologic and other approaches aimed at slower rate of decline in dementia.
There is evidence to suggest that GPs experience significant difficulties associated with lack of support from, and communication with, hospital and other specialists in palliative care. The establishment of cancer and palliative care facilitator schemes by Macmillan Cancer Relief reflects these current concerns very clearly. This paper presents some of the findings from the first phase of an evaluation of one such GP facilitator scheme in the Welsh county of Powys. It examines the perceptions and expectations of GP facilitator post-holders during the first year of the facilitator scheme, based upon data gathered from qualitive interviews conducted on three separate occasions. The picture that emerges from the first year of this facilitator project is broadly a positive one. Facilitators have tailored their roles to fit in with and augment the practices with which they deal. Attitudes vary, but their goals of facilitation and education appear similar. Themain challenges facing post-holders is that of being aware of the possible existence of professional rivalries whilst developing their role in ways which do not encroach upon the territories of long-established colleagues.
The diagnosis of psychopathy is important for violence risk assessment.
To investigate whether the syndromal structure of psychopathy, as measured by the Psychopathy Checklist – Revised (PCL–R), is the same in the UK and North America, and whether this measure yields scores that are equivalent in these two regions.
Confirmatory factor analytic and item response theory methods were applied to large samples of PCL–R ratings.
The syndromal structure of psychopathy was invariant across cultures, three distinct factors underpinning the superordinate syndrome of psychopathy. However, PCL–R scores were not equivalent across cultures: the same level of psychopathy was associated with lower PCL–R scores in the UK. Items that reflected affective symptoms had the highest cross-cultural stability.
Scores on the PCL–R obtained in the UK are not directly comparable with those obtained in North America. Care must be exercised when the PCL–R is used to make important clinical decisions in the UK.