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Less is known about the relationship between conduct disorder (CD), callous–unemotional (CU) traits, and positive and negative parenting in youth compared to early childhood. We combined traditional univariate analyses with a novel machine learning classifier (Angle-based Generalized Matrix Learning Vector Quantization) to classify youth (N = 756; 9–18 years) into typically developing (TD) or CD groups with or without elevated CU traits (CD/HCU, CD/LCU, respectively) using youth- and parent-reports of parenting behavior. At the group level, both CD/HCU and CD/LCU were associated with high negative and low positive parenting relative to TD. However, only positive parenting differed between the CD/HCU and CD/LCU groups. In classification analyses, performance was best when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD groups and poorest when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. Positive and negative parenting were both relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from TD, negative parenting was most relevant when distinguishing between CD/LCU and TD, and positive parenting was most relevant when distinguishing CD/HCU from CD/LCU groups. These findings suggest that while positive parenting distinguishes between CD/HCU and CD/LCU, negative parenting is associated with both CD subtypes. These results highlight the importance of considering multiple parenting behaviors in CD with varying levels of CU traits in late childhood/adolescence.
Recent evidence suggests that quitline text messaging is an effective treatment for smoking cessation, but little is known about the relative effectiveness of the message content.
A pilot study of the effects of gain-framed (GF; focused on the benefits of quitting) versus loss-framed (LF; focused on the costs of continued smoking) text messages among smokers contacting a quitline.
Participants were randomized to receive LF (N = 300) or GF (N = 300) text messages for 30 weeks. Self-reported 7-day point prevalence abstinence and number of 24 h quit attempts were assessed at week 30. Intent-to-treat (ITT) and responder analyses for smoking cessation were conducted using logistic regression.
The ITT analysis showed 17% of the GF group quit smoking compared to 15% in the LF group (P = 0.508). The responder analysis showed 44% of the GF group quit smoking compared to 35% in the LF group (P = 0.154). More participants in the GF group reported making a 24 h quit attempt compared to the LF group (98% vs. 93%, P = 0.046).
Although there were no differences in abstinence rates between groups at the week 30 follow-up, participants in the GF group made more quit attempts than those in the LF group.
Hurricanes can interrupt communication, exacerbate attrition, and disrupt participant engagement in research. We used text messaging and disaster preparedness protocols to re-establish communication, re-engage participants, and ensure retention in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) self-test study.
Participants were given HIV home test kits to test themselves and/or their non-monogamous sexual partners before intercourse. A daily text message-based short message service computer-assisted self-interview (SMS-CASI) tool reminded them to report 3 variables: (1) anal sex without a condom, (2) knowledge of partners’ testing history, and (3) proof of partners’ testing history. A disaster preparedness protocol was put in place for hurricanes in Puerto Rico. We analyzed 6315 messages from participants (N = 12) active at the time of Hurricanes Irma and Maria. Disaster preparedness narratives were assessed.
All participants were able to communicate sexual behavior and HIV testing via SMS-CASI within 30 days following María. Some participants (n = 5, 42%) also communicated questions. Re-engagement within 30 days after the hurricane was 100% (second week/89%, third week/100%). Participant re-engagement ranged from 0–16 days (average = 6.4 days). Retention was 100%.
Daily SMS-CASI and disaster preparedness protocols helped participant engagement and communication after 2 hurricanes. SMS-CASI responses indicated high participant re-engagement, retention, and well-being.
To determine the effect of mandatory and nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies on vaccination rates and symptomatic absenteeism among healthcare personnel (HCP).
Retrospective observational cohort study.
This study took place at 3 university medical centers with mandatory influenza vaccination policies and 4 Veterans Affairs (VA) healthcare systems with nonmandatory influenza vaccination policies.
The study included 2,304 outpatient HCP at mandatory vaccination sites and 1,759 outpatient HCP at nonmandatory vaccination sites.
To determine the incidence and duration of absenteeism in outpatient settings, HCP participating in the Respiratory Protection Effectiveness Clinical Trial at both mandatory and nonmandatory vaccination sites over 3 viral respiratory illness (VRI) seasons (2012–2015) reported their influenza vaccination status and symptomatic days absent from work weekly throughout a 12-week period during the peak VRI season each year. The adjusted effects of vaccination and other modulating factors on absenteeism rates were estimated using multivariable regression models.
The proportion of participants who received influenza vaccination was lower each year at nonmandatory than at mandatory vaccination sites (odds ratio [OR], 0.09; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.07–0.11). Among HCP who reported at least 1 sick day, vaccinated HCP had lower symptomatic days absent compared to unvaccinated HCP (OR for 2012–2013 and 2013–2014, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.72–0.93; OR for 2014–2015, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.69–0.95).
These data suggest that mandatory HCP influenza vaccination policies increase influenza vaccination rates and that HCP symptomatic absenteeism diminishes as rates of influenza vaccination increase. These findings should be considered in formulating HCP influenza vaccination policies.
With the predicted growth in the number of people with dementia living at home across the globe, the need for home-based care is expected to increase. As such, it will be primarily family carers who will provide this crucial support to family members. Designing appropriate support for family carers is thus essential to minimise risks to their health, to prevent premature institutionalisation or poor care for persons with dementia, as well as to sustain the effective functioning of health and social care systems. To date, the high volume of research related to care at home and acknowledged low impact of interventions suggests that a re-examination of the nature of care at home, and how we come to know about it, is necessary if we are to advance strategies that will contribute to better outcomes for families. This paper describes findings from an ethnographic study that was designed to support an analysis of the complexity and materiality of family care arrangements – that is, the significance of the actual physical, technological and institutional elements shaping care-giving situations. In this paper, we describe the arrangements made by one family to show the necessary collectivity of these arrangements, and the consequences of the formal care system's failure to respond to these.
OBJECTIVES/SPECIFIC AIMS: The Institute for Transnational Sciences (ITS) has developed novel methods to ethically engage stakeholders across the transnational research spectrum, up to and including public health practice and policy. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In 2014, the ITS co-founded The Research, Education, And Community Health (REACH), the mission of which was to facilitate communication, collaborative research, and service activities between faculty and scientists and area community leaders. The intent was to identify and meet the needs of our communities without gaps and/or redundancies, thus better leveraging time, funding, and efforts. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: REACH now boasts 23 Centers, Departments, and Institutes, as well as 39 community organizations, including public and mental health agencies, clinicians, policy makers, family service centers, cultural and faith-based organizations, business, and local schools/colleges. We offer 3 methods for consideration as best practices: (1) a comprehensive community health needs assessment, (2) an “Offer and Ask” community/campus partnership mechanism, and (3) Community Science Workshops, based on the European Union’s Science Shops. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Results of REACH’s work have been used to provide guidance for enhanced, data-driven programs and allocation of resources for local and statewide initiatives. The organization has evolved into an independent coalition seeking 501(c)3 status and is planning to expand its scope to 5 counties. REACH thus serves as model for successful replication across applicable CTSA hubs.
Older care home residents are excluded from the sexual imaginary. Based on a consultative study involving interviews with three residents, three female spouses of residents and two focus groups of care home staff (N = 16), making an overall sample of 22 study participants, we address the neglected subject of older residents' sexuality and intimacy needs. Using thematic analysis, we highlight how residents’ and spouses’ accounts of sexuality and intimacy can reflect an ageist erotophobia occurring within conditions of panoptical control that help construct residents as post-sexual. However, not all accounts contributed to making older residents’ sexuality appear invisible or pathological. Some stories indicated recuperation of identities and the normalisation of relationships with radically changed individuals, e.g. because of a dementia. We also examine care home staff accounts of the discursive obstacles that frustrate meeting residents’ needs connected with sexuality and intimacy. Simultaneously, we explore staffs’ creative responses to dilemmas which indicate approaches to sexuality driven more by observed needs than erotophobic anxiety and governance, as well as panoptical surveillance.
Sexuality and intimacy in care homes for older people are overshadowed by concern with prolonging physical and/or psychological autonomy. When sexuality and intimacy have been addressed in scholarship, this can reflect a sexological focus concerned with how to continue sexual activity with reduced capacity. We review the (Anglophone) academic and practitioner literatures bearing on sexuality and intimacy in relation to older care home residents (though much of this applies to older people generally). We highlight how ageism (or ageist erotophobia), which defines older people as post-sexual, restricts opportunities for the expression of sexuality and intimacy. In doing so, we draw attention to more critical writing that recognises constraints on sexuality and intimacy and indicates solutions to some of the problems identified. We also highlight problems faced by lesbian, gay, bisexual and trans (LGB&T) residents who are doubly excluded from sexual/intimate citizenship because of ageism combined with the heterosexual assumption. Older LGB&T residents/individuals can feel obliged to deny or disguise their identity. We conclude by outlining an agenda for research based on more sociologically informed practitioner-led work.
Emergency physicians who work in academic settings enjoy an expanding number of roles beyond that of the skilled clinician. Faculty development (FD) encompasses the broad range of activities that institutions use to renew skill-sets and assist faculty members in these multiple roles. This study seeks to define the current FD needs and interests of Canadian academic emergency physicians (AEPs).
An online survey was administered to 943 AEPs in eight centers across Canada to determine their current FD activities, provide a detailed understanding of their FD needs and interests, elucidate the perceived barriers to and motivation for engaging in FD, and identify preferred methods of delivery for FD activities.
This national, cross-sectional survey was completed by 336 respondents. It shows that need for FD is universally high, particularly in traditional domains of scholarship, leadership and education (79%, 80%, 87% overall interest, respectively). However, the study also suggests that there is increasing need for FD in areas where current participation is lowest, namely research and social accountability (12% and 13% more interest, respectively). Senior and junior faculty evince equivalent overall FD interest (p>0.05), whereas female AEPs expressed greater overall FD needs in leadership (1.82 vs 1.44 activities, p=0.003) than males. Continued participation in FD activities is best promoted by offering relevant topics, at convenient times and locations.
This study reports the first comprehensive national FD needs assessment of Canadian academic emergency physicians.
Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations have been reported to increase following weight loss. Moreover, both weight loss and higher serum 25(OH)D concentrations have been associated with a lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss is associated with improved insulin sensitivity, insulin secretion and disposition index (β-cell function). Data from two prospective lifestyle modification studies had been combined. Following a lifestyle-modifying weight loss intervention for 1 year, eighty-four men and women with prediabetes and a BMI ≥ 27 kg/m2 were divided based on weight loss at 1 year: < 5 % (non-responders, n 56) and ≥ 5 % (responders, n 28). The association between the change in serum 25(OH)D concentration and changes in insulin sensitivity (homeostasis model assessment of insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S) and Matsuda), insulin secretion (AUC of C-peptide) and disposition index after adjustment for weight loss was examined. Participants in the responders' group lost on average 9·5 % of their weight when compared with non-responders who lost only 0·8 % of weight. Weight loss in responders resulted in improved insulin sensitivity (HOMA%S, P= 0·0003) and disposition index (P= 0·02); however, insulin secretion remained unchanged. The rise in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss in responders was significantly higher than that in non-responders (8·9 (sd 12·5) v. 3·6 (sd 10·7) nmol/l, P= 0·05). However, it had not been associated with amelioration of insulin sensitivity and β-cell function, even after adjustment for weight loss and several confounders. In conclusion, the increase in serum 25(OH)D concentration following weight loss does not contribute to the improvement in insulin sensitivity or β-cell function.
Glivenko’s theorem states that an arbitrary propositional formula is classically provable if and only if its double negation is intuitionistically provable. The result does not extend to full first-order predicate logic, but does extend to first-order predicate logic without the universal quantifier. A recent paper by Zdanowski shows that Glivenko’s theorem also holds for second-order propositional logic without the universal quantifier. We prove that Glivenko’s theorem extends to some versions of simple type theory without the universal quantifier. Moreover, we prove that Kuroda’s negative translation, which is known to embed classical first-order logic into intuitionistic first-order logic, extends to the same versions of simple type theory. We also prove that the Glivenko property fails for simple type theory once a weak form of functional extensionality is included.
High-quality data from appropriate archives are needed for the continuing improvement of radiocarbon calibration curves. We discuss here the basic assumptions behind 14C dating that necessitate calibration and the relative strengths and weaknesses of archives from which calibration data are obtained. We also highlight the procedures, problems, and uncertainties involved in determining atmospheric and surface ocean 14C/12C in these archives, including a discussion of the various methods used to derive an independent absolute timescale and uncertainty. The types of data required for the current IntCal database and calibration curve model are tabulated with examples.
The Onobrychis genus comprises a few agronomically important forage legume species, with sainfoin (Onobrychis viciifolia) being the most widespread. O. viciifolia has a long history of traditional culture worldwide, but its use has declined in western countries over the last decades. It suffers from low productivity and is more difficult to maintain than other legumes but is known to have valuable characteristics such as palatability and drought tolerance. Recent studies suggest that it has several other highly beneficial properties due to its unique tannin and polyphenol composition. Condensed tannins present in Onobrychis species have been shown to confer anthelmintic properties, increase protein utilization and prevent bloating; they may also have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Positive effects on wildlife and honey production could also be advantageous in the context of sustainable farming. Modern breeding programmes have not been a priority, leading to a lack of genetic knowledge in comparison to extensively used forage legumes. It is expected that potential for O. viciifolia improvements could be achieved by rigorous characterization of the available germplasm and utilization of characters derived from close relatives of the genus. Breeding priorities for the future would include enhanced germination and improved early establishment, allied to the best anthelmintic properties observed in some varieties.
Microlensing searches for planets are sensitive to small, cold exoplanets from 1–6 AU from their host stars and therefore probe an important part of parameter space. Other techniques would require many years of observations, often from space, to detect similar systems. Microlensing events can be characterised from only ground-based observations over a relatively short (≤100d) timescales. LCOGT and SUPA/St Andrews are building a robotic global network of telescopes that will be well suited to follow these events. Here we present preliminary results of the Galactic Bulge observing season 2010 March–October.