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The Great Migration from the South and the rise of racial residential segregation strongly shaped the twentieth-century experience of African Americans. Yet, little attention has been devoted to how the two phenomena were linked, especially with respect to the individual experiences of the migrants. We address this gap by using novel data that links individual records from the complete-count 1940 Census to those in the 2000 Census long form, in conjunction with information about the level of racial residential segregation in metropolitan areas in 1940 and 2000. We first consider whether migrants from the South and their children experienced higher or lower levels of segregation in 1940 relative to their counterparts who were born in the North or who remained in the South. Next, we extend our analysis to second-generation Great Migration migrants and their segregation outcomes by observing their location in 2000. Additionally, we assess whether second-generation migrants experience larger decreases in their exposure to segregation as their socioeconomic status increases relative to their southern and/or northern stayer counterparts. Our study significantly advances our understanding of the Great Migration and the “segregated century.”
Healthcare facilities frequently use disaster codes as a way to communicate with employees that an emergency or incident is occurring. As increasing numbers of providers work at multiple facilities, and healthcare systems continue to build disaster response teams and protocols covering multiple facilities, standardization of disaster code terminology is critical. A lack of consistency in terminology can potentially have a devastating impact on the understanding and response of visiting or relief staff.
To evaluate the level of standardization in terminology of disaster codes in healthcare facilities.
A convenience sample was taken from a private Facebook™ group consisting of emergency department nurses from a wide range of facilities. The Facebook™ group was asked to share their hospital disaster codes. Of the 40,179 total members, 78 commented, including 55 photos of quick reference badges, and the rest were descriptions/lists of codes. One badge was excluded due to a blurry photograph. Results were collated and analyzed for trends and standardization.
The most common codes were, “Code Red” for fire (72.7%), “Code Blue” for cardiac arrest (44.9%), “Code Silver” for active shooter/weapons event (37.7%) and “Code Orange” for hazardous materials (33.8%). There were 168 instances of a code term being associated with a particular event by five or fewer facilities. Two facilities used numeric systems, with 11 using plain language descriptions.
Disaster code language is inconsistent. Few of the codes were consistently assigned to the same meaning, and none were universal. Color coding was the most common method, but there was little consistency even within color code systems. Additionally, some facilities used a combination of colors, numbers, terms, and plain language. Healthcare facilities should embrace standard terminology and create a consistent language for disaster codes to enhance response capabilities and medical security.
Spiders are natural specialists in fiber processing. In particular, cribellate spiders manifest this ability as they produce a wool of nanofibers to capture prey. During its production they deploy a sophisticated movement of their spinnerets to darn in the fibers as well as a comb-like row of setae, termed calamistrum, on the metatarsus which plays a key role in nanofiber processing. In comparison to the elaborate nanofiber extraction and handling process by the spider’s calamistrum, the human endeavors of spinning and handling of artificial nanofibers is still a primitive technical process. An implementation of biomimetics in spinning technology could lead to new materials and applications. Despite the general progress in related fields of nanoscience, the expected leap forward in spinning technology depends on a better understanding of the specific shapes and surfaces that control the forces at the nanoscale and that are involved in the mechanical processing of the nanofibers, respectively. In this study, the authors investigated the morphology of the calamistrum of the cribellate spider Uloborus plumipes. Focused ion beam and scanning electron microscopy tomography provided a good image contrast and the best trade-off between investigation volume and spatial resolution. A comprehensive three-dimensional model is presented and the putative role of the calamistrum in nanofiber processing is discussed.
A new model is proposed on how to account for the inertia of scatterers in radar-based turbulence intensity retrieval techniques. Rain drop inertial parameters are derived from fundamental physical laws, which are gravity, the buoyancy force, and the drag force. The inertial distance is introduced, which is a typical distance at which a particle obtains the same wind velocity as its surroundings throughout its trajectory. For the measurement of turbulence intensity, either the Doppler spectral width or the variance of Doppler mean velocities is used. The relative scales of the inertial distance and the radar resolution volume determine whether the variance of velocities is increased or decreased for the same turbulence intensity. A decrease can be attributed to the effect that inertial particles are less responsive to the variations of wind velocities. An increase can be attributed to inertial particles that have wind velocities corresponding to an average of wind velocities over their backward trajectories, which extend outside the radar resolution volume. Simulations are done for the calculation of measured radar velocity variance, given a 3-D homogeneous isotropic turbulence field, which provides valuable insight in the correct tuning of parameters for the new model.
All polymastiid sponges displaying ornamented exotyles are reviewed and their morphological affinities are reconsidered. The study embraces all known species of Proteleia, Sphaerotylus, Trachyteleia and Tylexocladus as well as several species of Polymastia. A new genus, Koltunia, is established for the Antarctic species Proteleia burtoni based on the unique shape of distal ornamentations of its giant exotyles and on the absence of a spicule palisade in its cortex, a rare feature among the polymastiids. Three new species of Sphaerotylus are described – S. renoufi from the British Isles, S. strobilis from South Africa and S. tjalfei from West Greenland. Transfer of one New Zealand species from Polymastia to Proteleia and of one Chilean species from Polymastia to Sphaerotylus is proposed. The present study provides a background for future integrative phylogenetic analyses based on comprehensive molecular and morphological datasets which should reveal the natural relationships between the polymastiid taxa.
The histories of chronicles composed in England during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries and onwards, with a focus on texts belonging to or engaging with the Prose Brut tradition, are thefocus of this volume. The contributors examine the composition, dissemination and reception of historical texts written in Anglo-Norman, Latin and English, including the Prose Brut chronicle (c. 1300 and later), Castleford's Chronicle (c. 1327), and Nicholas Trevet's Les Cronicles (c. 1334), looking at questions of the processes of writing, rewriting, printing and editing history. They cross traditional boundaries of subject and period, taking multi-disciplinary approaches to their studies in order to underscore the (shifting) historical, social and political contexts inwhich medieval English chronicles were used and read from the fourteenth century through to the present day. As such, the volume honours the pioneering work of the late Professor Lister M. Matheson, whose research in this area demonstrated that a full understanding of medieval historical literature demands attention to both the content of the works in question and to the material circumstances of producing those works.
Jaclyn Rajsic is a Lecturer in Medieval Literature in the School of English and Drama at Queen Mary University of London; Erik Kooper taught Old and Middle English at Utrecht University; until his retirement in 2007; Dominique Hoche is an Associate Professor at West Liberty University in West Virginia.
Contributors: Elizabeth J. Bryan, Caroline D. Eckhardt, A.S.G. Edwards, Dan Embree, Alexander L. Kaufman, Edward Donald Kennedy, Erik Kooper, Julia Marvin, William Marx, Krista A. Murchison, Heather Pagan, Jaclyn Rajsic, Christine M. Rose, NeilWeijer